21. 
 Adam, R., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We investigate constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We combine the Planck CMB anisotropy data in temperature with the lowmultipole polarization data to fit Lambda CDM models with various parameterizations of the reionization history. We obtain a Thomson optical depth tau = 0.058 +/ 0.012 for the commonly adopted instantaneous reionization model. This confirms, with data solely from CMB anisotropies, the low value suggested by combining Planck 2015 results with other data sets, and also reduces the uncertainties. We reconstruct the history of the ionization fraction using either a symmetric or an asymmetric model for the transition between the neutral and ionized phases. To determine better constraints on the duration of the reionization process, we also make use of measurements of the amplitude of the kinetic SunyaevZeldovich (kSZ) effect using additional information from the highresolution Atacama Cosmology Telescope and South Pole Telescope experiments. The average redshift at which reionization occurs is found to lie between z = 7.8 and 8.8, depending on the model of reionization adopted. Using kSZ constraints and a redshiftsymmetric reionization model, we find an upper limit to the width of the reionization period of Delta z < 2.8. In all cases, we find that the Universe is ionized at less than the 10% level at redshifts above z similar or equal to 10. This suggests that an early onset of reionization is strongly disfavoured by the Planck data. We show that this result also reduces the tension between CMBbased analyses and constraints from other astrophysical sources.


22. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results III. High Frequency Instrument data processing and frequency maps
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 This paper presents the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data processing procedures for the Planck 2018 release. Major improvements in mapmaking have been achieved since the previous Planck 2015 release, many of which were used and described already in an intermediate paper dedicated to the Planck polarized data at low multipoles. These improvements enabled the first significant measurement of the reionization optical depth parameter using PlanckHFI data. This paper presents an extensive analysis of systematic effects, including the use of endtoend simulations to facilitate their removal and characterize the residuals. The polarized data, which presented a number of known problems in the 2015 Planck release, are very significantly improved, especially the leakage from intensity to polarization. Calibration, based on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole, is now extremely accurate and in the frequency range 100353 GHz reduces intensitytopolarization leakage caused by calibration mismatch. The Solar dipole direction has been determined in the three lowest HFI frequency channels to within one arc minute, and its amplitude has an absolute uncertainty smaller than 0.35 mu K, an accuracy of order 10(4). This is a major legacy from the Planck HFI for future CMB experiments. The removal of bandpass leakage has been improved for the main highfrequency foregrounds by extracting the bandpassmismatch coefficients for each detector as part of the mapmaking process; these values in turn improve the intensity maps. This is a major change in the philosophy of frequency maps, which are now computed from single detector data, all adjusted to the same average bandpass response for the main foregrounds. Endtoend simulations have been shown to reproduce very well the relative gain calibration of detectors, as well as drifts within a frequency induced by the residuals of the main systematic effect (analoguetodigital convertor nonlinearity residuals). Using these simulations, we have been able to measure and correct the small frequency calibration bias induced by this systematic effect at the 10(4) level. There is no detectable sign of a residual calibration bias between the first and second acoustic peaks in the CMB channels, at the 10(3) level.


23. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results V. CMB power spectra and likelihoods
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We describe the legacy Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihoods derived from the 2018 data release. The overall approach is similar in spirit to the one retained for the 2013 and 2015 data release, with a hybrid method using different approximations at low (l< 30) and high (l >= 30) multipoles, implementing several methodological and dataanalysis refinements compared to previous releases. With more realistic simulations, and better correction and modelling of systematic effects, we can now make full use of the CMB polarization observed in the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) channels. The lowmultipole EE crossspectra from the 100 GHz and 143 GHz data give a constraint on the Lambda CDM reionization opticaldepth parameter tau to better than 15% (in combination with the TT lowl data and the highl temperature and polarization data), tightening constraints on all parameters with posterior distributions correlated with tau. We also update the weaker constraint on tau from the joint TEB likelihood using the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) channels, which was used in 2015 as part of our baseline analysis. At higher multipoles, the CMB temperature spectrum and likelihood are very similar to previous releases. A better model of the temperaturetopolarization leakage and corrections for the effective calibrations of the polarization channels (i.e., the polarization efficiencies) allow us to make full use of polarization spectra, improving the Lambda CDM constraints on the parameters theta(MC), omega(c), omega(b), and H0 by more than 30%, and n(s) by more than 20% compared to TTonly constraints. Extensive tests on the robustness of the modelling of the polarization data demonstrate good consistency, with some residual modelling uncertainties. At high multipoles, we are now limited mainly by the accuracy of the polarization efficiency modelling. Using our various tests, simulations, and comparison between different highmultipole likelihood implementations, we estimate the consistency of the results to be better than the 0.5 sigma level on the Lambda CDM parameters, as well as classical singleparameter extensions for the joint likelihood (to be compared to the 0.3 sigma levels we achieved in 2015 for the temperature data alone on Lambda CDM only). Minor curiosities already present in the previous releases remain, such as the differences between the bestfit Lambda CDM parameters for the l< 800 and l> 800 ranges of the power spectrum, or the preference for more smoothing of the powerspectrum peaks than predicted in Lambda CDM fits. These are shown to be driven by the temperature power spectrum and are not significantly modified by the inclusion of the polarization data. Overall, the legacy Planck CMB likelihoods provide a robust tool for constraining the cosmological model and represent a reference for future CMB observations.


24. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results VI. Cosmological parameters
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present cosmological parameter results from the final fullmission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of largescale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to significant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters. Improved modelling of the smallscale polarization leads to more robust constraints on many parameters, with residual modelling uncertainties estimated to affect them only at the 0.5 sigma level. We find good consistency with the standard spatiallyflat 6parameter Lambda CDM cosmology having a powerlaw spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted base Lambda CDM in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density Omega (c)h(2)=0.120 +/ 0.001, baryon density Omega (b)h(2)=0.0224 +/ 0.0001, scalar spectral index n(s)=0.965 +/ 0.004, and optical depth tau =0.054 +/ 0.007 (in this abstract we quote 68% confidence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to 0.03% precision, with 100 theta (*)=1.0411 +/ 0.0003. These results are only weakly dependent on the cosmological model and remain stable, with somewhat increased errors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the baseLambda CDM cosmology, the inferred (modeldependent) lateUniverse parameters are: Hubble constant H0=(67.4 +/ 0.5) km s(1) Mpc(1); matter density parameter Omega (m)=0.315 +/ 0.007; and matter fluctuation amplitude sigma (8)=0.811 +/ 0.006. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the baseLambda CDM model. Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and considering singleparameter extensions) we constrain the effective extra relativistic degrees of freedom to be Neff=2.99 +/ 0.17, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction Neff=3.046, and find that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained to Sigma m(nu)< 0.12 eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudes than predicted in base CDM at over 2 sigma, which pulls some parameters that affect the lensing amplitude away from the Lambda CDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAO data. The joint constraint with BAO measurements on spatial curvature is consistent with a flat universe, Omega (K)=0.001 +/ 0.002. Also combining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the darkenergy equation of state parameter is measured to be w(0)=1.03 +/ 0.03, consistent with a cosmological constant. We find no evidence for deviations from a purely powerlaw primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensortoscalar ratio r(0.002)< 0.06. Standard bigbang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the baseCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. The Planck baseLambda CDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey's combinedprobe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower fluctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in significant, 3.6 sigma, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value). Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data.


25. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results XII. Galactic astrophysics using polarized dust emission
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Observations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck fullsky maps. In this paper we make use of such fullsky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical studies of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust, we present fullsky maps of the dust polarization fraction p, polarization angle psi, and dispersion function of polarization angles ?. The joint distribution (onepoint statistics) of p and NH confirms that the mean and maximum polarization fractions decrease with increasing NH. The uncertainty on the maximum observed polarization fraction, (max) = 22.0(1.4)(+3.5) p max = 22 . 0  1.4 + 3.5 % at 353 GHz and 80 ' resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the Galactic emission zero level in total intensity, in particular towards diffuse lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes. Furthermore, the inverse behaviour between p and ? found earlier is seen to be present at high latitudes. This follows the ?proportional to p(1) relationship expected from models of the polarized sky (including numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence) that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent magnetic field, but otherwise have uniform alignment and dust properties. Thus, the statistical properties of p, psi, and ? for the most part reflect the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map ?xp, looking for residual trends. While the polarization fraction p decreases by a factor of 34 between NH=10(20) cm(2) and NH=2x10(22) cm(2), out of the Galactic plane, this product ?xp only decreases by about 25%. Because ? is independent of the grain alignment efficiency, this demonstrates that the systematic decrease in p with NH is determined mostly by the magneticfield structure and not by a drop in grain alignment. This systematic trend is observed both in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. Second, we look for a dependence of polarization properties on the dust temperature, as we would expect from the radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory. We find no systematic trend of ?xp with the dust temperature Td, whether in the diffuse ISM or in the molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. In the diffuse ISM, lines of sight with high polarization fraction p and low polarization angle dispersion ? tend, on the contrary, to have colder dust than lines of sight with low p and high ?. We also compare the Planck thermal dust polarization with starlight polarization data in the visible at high Galactic latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable, and is consistent with what we expect from the noise and the observed dispersion of polarization angles in the visible on the scale of the Planck beam. The two polarization emissiontoextinction ratios, RP/p and RS/V, which primarily characterize dust optical properties, have only a weak dependence on the column density, and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We also determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction, p(V)/E(BV), of 13% at high Galactic latitude, compatible with the polarization fraction p approximate to 20% observed at 353 GHz. Taken together, these results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.


26. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results L. Evidence of spatial variation of the polarized thermal dust spectral energy distribution and implications for CMB Bmode analysis
 2017

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 599

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The characterization of the Galactic foregrounds has been shown to be the main obstacle in the challenging quest to detect primordial Bmodes in the polarized microwave sky. We make use of the PlanckHFI 2015 data release at high frequencies to place new constraints on the properties of the polarized thermal dust emission at high Galactic latitudes. Here, we specifically study the spatial variability of the dust polarized spectral energy distribution (SED), and its potential impact on the determination of the tensortoscalar ratio, r. We use the correlation ratio of the CBB `angular power spectra between the 217 and 353 GHz channels as a tracer of these potential variations, computed on different high Galactic latitude regions, ranging from 80% to 20% of the sky. The new insight from Planck data is a departure of the correlation ratio from unity that cannot be attributed to a spurious decorrelation due to the cosmic microwave background, instrumental noise, or instrumental systematics. The effect is marginally detected on each region, but the statistical combination of all the regions gives more than 99% confidence for this variation in polarized dust properties. In addition, we show that the decorrelation increases when there is a decrease in the mean column density of the region of the sky being considered, and we propose a simple powerlaw empirical model for this dependence, which matches what is seen in the Planck data. We explore the effect that this measured decorrelation has on simulations of the BICEP2Keck Array/Planck analysis and show that the 2015 constraints from these data still allow a decorrelation between the dust at 150 and 353 GHz that is compatible with our measured value. Finally, using simplified models, we show that either spatial variation of the dust SED or of the dust polarization angle are able to produce decorrelations between 217 and 353 GHz data similar to the values we observe in the data.


27. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results LIII. Detection of velocity dispersion from the kinetic SunyaevZeldovich effect
 2018

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 617

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Using the Planck fullmission data, we present a detection of the temperature (and therefore velocity) dispersion due to the kinetic SunyaevZeldovich (kSZ) effect from clusters of galaxies. To suppress the primary CMB and instrumental noise we derive a matched filter and then convolve it with the Planck foregroundcleaned 2D ILC maps. By using the Meta Catalogue of Xray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we determine the normalized rms dispersion of the temperature fluctuations at the positions of clusters, finding that this shows excess variance compared with the noise expectation. We then build an unbiased statistical estimator of the signal, determining that the normalized mean temperature dispersion of 1526 clusters is <(Delta T/T)(2))> = (1.64 +/ 0.48) x 10(11). However, comparison with analytic calculations and simulations suggest that around 0.7 sigma of this result is due to cluster lensing rather than the kSZ effect. By correcting this, the temperature dispersion is measured to be <(Delta T/T)(2))> = (1.35 +/ 0.48) x 10(11), which gives a detection at the 2.8 sigma level. We further convert uniformweight temperature dispersion into a measurement of the lineofsight velocity dispersion, by using estimates of the optical depth of each cluster (which introduces additional uncertainty into the estimate). We find that the velocity dispersion is (v(2)) = (123 000 +/ 71 000) (km s(1))(2), which is consistent with findings from other largescale structure studies, and provides direct evidence of statistical homogeneity on scales of 600 h(1) Mpc. Our study shows the promise of using crosscorrelations of the kSZ effect with largescale structure in order to constrain the growth of structure.


28. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLIV. Structure of the Galactic magnetic field from dust polarization maps of the southern Galactic cap
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Using data from the Planck satellite, we study the statistical properties of interstellar dust polarization at high Galactic latitudes around the south pole (b < 60 degrees). Our aim is to advance the understanding of the magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), and to provide a modelling framework of the polarized dust foreground for use in cosmic microwave background (CMB) componentseparation procedures. We examine the Stokes I, Q, and U maps at 353 GHz, and particularly the statistical distribution of the polarization fraction (p) and angle (Psi), in order to characterize the ordered and turbulent components of the Galactic magnetic field (GMF) in the solar neighbourhood. The Q and U maps show patterns at large angular scales, which we relate to the mean orientation of the GMF towards Galactic coordinates (l(0); b(0)) = (70 degrees +/ 5 degrees, 24 degrees +/ 5 degrees). The histogram of the observed p values shows a wide dispersion up to 25%. The histogram Psi of has a standard deviation of 12 degrees about the regular pattern expected from the ordered GMF. We build a phenomenological model that connects the distributions of p and Psi to a statistical description of the turbulent component of the GMF, assuming a uniform effective polarization fraction (p(0)) of dust emission. To compute the Stokes parameters, we approximate the integration along the line of sight (LOS) as a sum over a set of N independent polarization layers, in each of which the turbulent component of the GMF is obtained from Gaussian realizations of a powerlaw power spectrum. We are able to reproduce the observed p and distributions using a p0 value of 26%, a ratio of 0.9 between the strengths of the turbulent and mean components of the GMF, and a small value of N. The mean value of p (inferred from the fit of the largescale patterns in the Stokes maps) is 12 +/ 1%. We relate the polarization layers to the density structure and to the correlation length of the GMF along the LOS. We emphasize the simplicity of our model (involving only a few parameters), which can be easily computed on the celestial sphere to produce simulated maps of dust polarization. Our work is an important step towards a model that can be used to assess the accuracy of componentseparation methods in present and future CMB experiments designed to search the B mode CMB polarization from primordial gravity waves.


29. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLVI. Reduction of largescale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 This paper describes the identification, modelling, and removal of previously unexplained systematic effects in the polarization data of the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) on large angular scales, including new mapmaking and calibration procedures, new and more complete endtoend simulations, and a set of robust internal consistency checks on the resulting maps. These maps, at 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, are early versions of those that will be released in final form later in 2016. The improvements allow us to determine the cosmic reionization optical depth tau using, for the first time, the lowmultipole EE data from HFI, reducing significantly the central value and uncertainty, and hence the upper limit. Two different likelihood procedures are used to constrain tau from two estimators of the CMB E and Bmode angular power spectra at 100 and 143 GHz, after debiasing the spectra from a small remaining systematic contamination. These all give fully consistent results. A further consistency test is performed using crosscorrelations derived from the Low Frequency Instrument maps of the Planck 2015 data release and the new HFI data. For this purpose, endtoend analyses of systematic effects from the two instruments are used to demonstrate the near independence of their dominant systematic error residuals. The tightest result comes from the HFIbased tau posterior distribution using the maximum likelihood power spectrum estimator from EE data only, giving a value 0.055 +/ 0.009. In a companion paper these results are discussed in the context of the bestfit Planck Lambda CDM cosmological model and recent models of reionization.


30. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature maps, we separate Galactic thermal dust emission from cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored componentseparation method, the socalled generalized needlet internal linear combination (GNILC) method, which uses spatial information (the angular power spectra) to disentangle the Galactic dust emission and CIB anisotropies. We produce significantly improved allsky maps of Planck thermal dust emission, with reduced CIB contamination, at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. By reducing the CIB contamination of the thermal dust maps, we provide more accurate estimates of the local dust temperature and dust spectral index over the sky with reduced dispersion, especially at high Galactic latitudes above b = +/ 20 degrees. We find that the dust temperature is T = (19.4 +/ 1.3) K and the dust spectral index is beta = 1.6 +/ 0.1 averaged over the whole sky, while T = (19.4 +/ 1.5) K and beta = 1.6 +/ 0.2 on 21% of the sky at high latitudes. Moreover, subtracting the new CIBremoved thermal dust maps from the CMBremoved Planck maps gives access to the CIB anisotropies over 60% of the sky at Galactic latitudes vertical bar b vertical bar > 20 degrees. Because they are a significant improvement over previous Planck products, the GNILC maps are recommended for thermal dust science. The new CIB maps can be regarded as indirect tracers of the dark matter and they are recommended for exploring crosscorrelations with lensing and largescale structure optical surveys. The reconstructed GNILC thermal dust and CIB maps are delivered as Planck products.

