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  • Fredriksson, Sofie, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Preschool teachers have an increased risk of hearing-related symptoms and report more occupational noise exposure compared to randomly selected women
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Occupational Health: Think Globally, Act Locally, EPICOH 2016, September 4–7, 2016, Barcelona, Spain. Occupational & Environmental Medicine. ; 73:A191
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Noise-induced hearing disorder has been thoroughly studied among workers in industry-like settings, but less so in female-dominated occupations. In Sweden, noise-related occupational disease among women are reported most frequently in the education sector. We analysed questionnaires from 4,932 women with preschool teacher’s degree who have worked in preschool compared to 5,065 randomly selected women without preschool work-history (response rate 51% vs. 38%). The age range was 24–71 in both cohorts (mean 46 [SD 11] among preschool teachers and 51 [11] among controls). Prevalence and prevalence ratio in age-strata and Mantel-Haenszel pooled risk were calculated for hearing-related symptoms. Noise exposure was compared between the cohorts. A 5% level of significance was applied. Occupational noise exposure and noise annoyance were significantly more common among teachers than controls: 75% vs.31% and 69% vs.26%, respectively. Still, significantly fewer teachers used hearing protection: 3% vs. 4%. Prevalence of hearing-related symptoms was much higher among teachers than controls: sound-induced auditory fatigue (71% [95% CI: 70–72] vs. 31% [30–32]), difficulty perceiving speech (46% [45–47] vs. 26% [25–27] and hyperacusis (38% [37–39] vs. 18% [17–19] and slightly higher for hearing loss (19% [18–20] vs. 17% [6–18] and tinnitus (19% [18–20] vs. 15% [14–16]. Teachers had a twofold risk of sound-induced auditory fatigue (PR-MH 2.2 [95% CI: 2.1–2.3] and hyperacusis (PR-MH 2.1 [1.9–2.2] compared to controls, when adjusted for age. The risk was also increased for difficulty perceiving speech (PR-MH 1.8 [1.7–1.9], tinnitus (PR-MH 1.4 [1.3–1.6] and hearing loss (PR-MH 1.4 [1.3–1.5]. Mean age of onset was significantly lower among teachers for all symptoms, except for hyperacusis (p = 0.902). Leisure-noise was significantly more common among controls. Family history of hearing loss did not differ (p = 0.411). The study is the first to show that preschool teachers have an increased risk of hearing-related symptoms, which may be caused by the work environment.
  • Fredriksson, Sofie, 1983, et al. (författare)
  • Working in preschool increases the risk of hearing-related symptoms: a cohort study among Swedish women
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0340-0131 .- 1432-1246. ; 92:8, s. 1179-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2019, The Author(s). Purpose: To assess whether working in preschools increases the risk of hearing-related symptoms and whether age, occupational noise, and stressful working conditions affect the risk. Methods: Questionnaire data on hearing-related symptoms were analysed in women aged 24–65 (4718 preschool teachers, and 4122 randomly selected general population controls). Prevalence and risk ratio (RR) of self-reported hearing loss, tinnitus, difficulty perceiving speech, hyperacusis and sound-induced auditory fatigue were assessed by comparing the cohorts in relation to age and self-reported occupational noise and stressful working conditions (effort–reward imbalance and emotional demands). RR was calculated using log-binomial regression models adjusted for age, education, income, smoking, hearing protection, and leisure noise. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated for retrospectively reported onset of all symptoms except sound-induced auditory fatigue. Results: Compared to the controls, preschool teachers had overall more than twofold RR of sound-induced auditory fatigue (RR 2.4, 95% confidence interval 2.2–2.5) and hyperacusis (RR 2.3, 2.1–2.5) and almost twofold for difficulty perceiving speech (RR 1.9, 1.7–2.0). Preschool teachers had a threefold IRR of hyperacusis (IRR 3.1, 2.8–3.4) and twofold for difficulty perceiving speech (IRR 2.4, 2.2–2.6). Significantly although slightly less increased RR and IRR were observed for hearing loss and tinnitus. RR and IRR were generally still increased for preschool teachers when stratified by age and occupational exposure to noise and stress. Conclusions: This large cohort study showed that working as preschool teacher increases the risk of self-reported hearing-related symptoms, indicating a need of preventative measures.
  • Kim, Tai Lim, et al. (författare)
  • Tea Consumption and Risk of Cancer: An Umbrella Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ADVANCES IN NUTRITION. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 2161-8313. ; 11:6, s. 1437-1452
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages, but its association with cancer risk remains controversial and unclear. We performed an umbrella review to clarify and determine the associations between tea consumption and various types of cancer by summarizing and recalculating the existing meta-analyses. Meta-analyses of observational studies reporting associations between tea consumption and cancer risk were searched on PubMed and Embase. Associations found to be statistically significant were further classified into levels of evidence (convincing, suggestive, or weak), based on P value, between-study heterogeneity, prediction intervals, and small study effects. Sixty-four observational studies (case-control or cohort) corresponding to 154 effect sizes on the incidence of 25 types of cancer were included. Forty-three (27.9%) results in 15 different types of cancer were statistically significant. When combining all studies on the same type of cancer, 19 results in 11 different types of cancer showed significant associations with lower risk of gastrointestinal tract organ cancer (oral, gastric, colorectal, biliary tract, and liver cancer), breast cancer, and gynecological cancer (endometrial and ovarian cancer) as well as leukemia, lung cancer, and thyroid cancer. Only the reduced risk of oral cancer in tea-consuming populations (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.72; P value < 10(-6)) was supported by convincing evidence. Suggestive evidence was found for 6 results on biliary tract, breast, endometrial, liver, and oral cancer.To summarize, tea consumption was shown to have protective effects on some types of cancer, particularly oral cancer. More well-designed prospective studies are needed with consideration of other factors that can cause biases.
  • Tran, K. B., et al. (författare)
  • The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 400:10352, s. 563-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Zhu, Huihui, et al. (författare)
  • High-performance hysteresis-free perovskite transistors through anion engineering
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Portfolio. - 2041-1723. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite the impressive development of metal halide perovskites in diverse optoelectronics, progress on high-performance transistors employing state-of-the-art perovskite channels has been limited due to ion migration and large organic spacer isolation. Herein, we report high-performance hysteresis-free p-channel perovskite thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on methylammonium tin iodide (MASnI(3)) and rationalise the effects of halide (I/Br/Cl) anion engineering on film quality improvement and tin/iodine vacancy suppression, realising high hole mobilities of 20 cm(2) V-1 s(-1), current on/off ratios exceeding 10(7), and threshold voltages of 0 V along with high operational stabilities and reproducibilities. We reveal ion migration has a negligible contribution to the hysteresis of Sn-based perovskite TFTs; instead, minority carrier trapping is the primary cause. Finally, we integrate the perovskite TFTs with commercialised n-channel indium gallium zinc oxide TFTs on a single chip to construct high-gain complementary inverters, facilitating the development of halide perovskite semiconductors for printable electronics and circuits. Progress on high-performance transistor employing perovskite channels has been limited to date. Here, Zhu et al. report hysteresis-free tin-based perovskite thin-film transistors with high hole mobility of 20 cm(2)V(-1)S(-1), which can be integrated with commercial metal oxide transistors on a single chip.
  • Amaral, A. F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795e9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf ofthe American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
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