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  • Amaral, A. F. S., et al. (författare)
  • Changes in IgE sensitization and total IgE levels over 20 years of follow-up
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 137:6, s. 1788-1795e9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cross-sectional studies have reported a lower prevalence of sensitization in older adults, but few longitudinal studies have examined whether this is an aging or a year-of-birth cohort effect. Objective We sought to assess changes in sensitization and total IgE levels in a cohort of European adults as they aged over a 20-year period. Methods Levels of serum specific IgE to common aeroallergens (house dust mite, cat, and grass) and total IgE levels were measured in 3206 adults from 25 centers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey on 3 occasions over 20 years. Changes in sensitization and total IgE levels were analyzed by using regression analysis corrected for potential differences in laboratory equipment and by using inverse sampling probability weights to account for nonresponse. Results Over the 20-year follow-up, the prevalence of sensitization to at least 1 of the 3 allergens decreased from 29.4% to 24.8% (-4.6%; 95% CI, -7.0% to -2.1%). The prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite (-4.3%; 95% CI, -6.0% to -2.6%) and cat (-2.1%; 95% CI, -3.6% to -0.7%) decreased more than sensitization to grass (-0.6%; 95% CI, -2.5% to 1.3%). Age-specific prevalence of sensitization to house dust mite and cat did not differ between year-of-birth cohorts, but sensitization to grass was most prevalent in the most recent ones. Overall, total IgE levels decreased significantly (geometric mean ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.58-0.68) at all ages in all year-of-birth cohorts. Conclusion Aging was associated with lower levels of sensitization, especially to house dust mite and cat, after the age of 20 years. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf ofthe American Academy of Allergy, Asthma&Immunology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.
  • Bartels, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of nocturnal road traffic noise, bedroom window orientation, and work-related stress on subjective sleep quality: results of a cross-sectional study among working women.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International archives of occupational and environmental health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1432-1246 .- 0340-0131. ; 94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To examine the effect of work-related stress and road noise exposure on self-rated sleep and potential additive interaction effects.Sleep and predictor variables were surveyed within two subsamples with 2191 and 1764 working women in a cross-sectional study. Sleep was assessed using a single question on general sleep quality and four questions on specific sleep problems and subsequently dichotomized (poor sleep vs. no poor sleep). Work-related stress was operationalized by job strain and effort-reward imbalance. Nocturnal exposure to road traffic noise was assessed as (a) the orientation of the bedroom window to a quiet façade vs. a low-, medium- or high-trafficked street and (b) energy-equivalent sound pressure levels for night-time modelled at the most exposed façade (Lnight). We distinguished between low (< 45 dB(A)), medium (45-50 dB(A)) and high exposure (> 50 dB(A)).Poor sleep was associated with job strain and effort-reward imbalance. The prevalence of poor sleep did not increase with increasing Lnight, but bedroom window orientation showed a non-significant trend. A quiet façade had a protective effect on sleep in each Lnight category. We found a non-significant trend for an additive interaction between bedroom window orientation and job strain.Noise levels modelled for the most exposed façade likely overestimate the actual exposure and thus may not be a precise predictor of poor sleep. Bedroom window orientation seems more relevant. Potential additive interaction effects between bedroom window orientation and job strain should be considered when interpreting epidemiological study results on noise-induced sleep disturbances.
  • Brisman, Jonas, 1954, et al. (författare)
  • Spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. - : Wiley. - 1475-0961. ; 37:6, s. 640-645
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • New spirometric reference equations for Swedish adults are required. Three different older sets of reference equations clinically used in Sweden have various drawbacks and the recently published 'The Global Lung Function 2012 (GLI) equations' have been shown not to be adequate for Swedish normal, healthy non-smokers. We have recently concluded that a piecewise linear model presented by Lubinski and Golczewski accurately describes the distribution of spirometric variables in a large Swedish random population sample. This piecewise linear model also offers the important advantage of implementing easily physiologically interpretable coefficients. The present study aimed at presenting piecewise linear reference equations for Swedish adults based on a random population sample of 6685 individuals aged 25-75years. Predicted normal values by the piecewise linear reference equations and lower limit normal (LLN) were compared with the three reference equations frequently used clinically in Sweden and the GLI equations. We found predicted normal values according to the present piecewise linear reference equations close to 100% predicted normal as expected, whereas the other equations either overestimated or underestimated normal subjects. Concerning LLN, the present equations, i.e. 1.645 x RSD, showed the least deviation from the expected 5% and, e.g., the GLI equations systematically identified too few subjects below LLN. We conclude that the present piecewise linear reference equations, based on a relatively large general population sample, ought to be considered for clinical use in Sweden. Application of 1.645 x RSD below predicted value gave an acceptably accurate LLN.
  • Cai, GH, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative PCR analysis of fungal DNA in Swedish day care centers and comparison with building characteristics and allergen levels.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Indoor Air. - : Hindawi Limited. - 1600-0668 .- 0905-6947. ; 19:5, s. 392-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sweden has had allergen-avoidance day care centers (AADCs) since 1979. The aim of this study was to measure fungal DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a new method, in AADCs and ordinary day care centers (ODCs) and examine associations between allergen levels and building characteristics. Dust samples were collected by swabbing doorframes, vacuum-cleaning, and using Petri dishes. In total, 11 AADCs and 11 ODCs were studied (70 rooms). Total fungal DNA, measured by qPCR in the swab dust, was detected in 89%, Aspergillus or Penicillium (Asp/Pen) DNA in 34%, and Stachybotrys chartarum DNA in 6% of the rooms. Total fungal DNA was significantly higher in rooms with linoleum floor (P = 0.02), textile carpets (P = 0.03), reported dampness/molds (P = 0.02) and reported odor (P < 0.001) in the buildings, and significantly lower in wooden facade buildings (P = 0.003). Reported odor was related to the amount of sieved fine dust, reported dampness/molds and type of building construction. Total fungal DNA was related to cat, dog, horse and total allergen levels (P = 0.003) in the day care centers. In conclusion, total fungal DNA is related to reported dampness/molds, reported odor, and type of wall construction. The association between fungal and allergen contamination indicated a general 'hygiene factor' related to biological contaminants. Practical Implications The associations between fungal DNA, reported dampness/molds, and odor support the view that buildings with odor problems should be investigated for possible hidden fungal growth. There is a need to measure fungal biomass in different types of building constructions by monitoring fungal DNA. Analysis of fungal DNA with quantitative PCR can be a fast and practical way to study indoor fungal contamination. Swabbing dust from the doorframe of the main entrance to the room can be a convenient method of sampling dust for fungal DNA analysis. The high prevalence of reported dampness/molds and the common occurrence of fungal DNA indicate the need to improve the indoor environment of Swedish day care centers.
  • Carlsen, Hanne Krage, et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to traffic and lung function in adults: A general population cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ. - 2044-6055. ; 5:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To investigate the association between living near dense traffic and lung function in a cohort of adults from a single urban region. Design: Cross-sectional results from a cohort study. Setting: The adult-onset asthma and exhaled nitric oxide (ADONIX) cohort, sampled during 2001-2008 in Gothenburg, Sweden. Exposure was expressed as the distance from participants' residential address to the nearest road with dense traffic (>10 000 vehicles per day) or very dense traffic (>30 000 vehicles per day). The exposure categories were: low (>500 m; reference), medium (75-500 m) or high (<75 m). Participants: The source population was a population-based cohort of adults (n=6153). The study population included 5441 participants of European descent with good quality spirometry and information about all outcomes and covariates. Outcome measures: Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were measured at a clinical examination. The association with exposure was examined using linear regression adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status and education in all participants and stratified by sex, smoking status and respiratory health status. Results: We identified a significant dose-response trend between exposure category and FEV1 (p=0.03) and borderline significant trend for FVC (p=0.06) after adjusting for covariates. High exposure was associated with lower FEV1 (-1.0%, 95% CI -2.5% to 0.5%) and lower FVC (-0.9%, 95% CI -2.2% to 0.4%). The effect appeared to be stronger in women. In highly exposed individuals with current asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, FVC was lower (-4.5%, 95% CI -8.8% to -0.1%). Conclusions: High traffic exposure at the residential address was associated with lower than predicted FEV1 and FVC lung function compared with living further away in a large general population cohort. There were particular effects on women and individuals with obstructive disease.
  • Fell, A. K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke and respiratory symptoms in non-smoking adults: cross-sectional data from the general population of Telemark, Norway
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bmc Public Health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2458. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In Norway, data on the association between second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure at home and respiratory symptoms in adults are limited. Methods: We assessed the association between self-reported exposure to SHS and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among never-smokers aged 16 to 50 years from the general population who were included in a cross-sectional population-based study in Telemark County, Norway. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of symptoms among 8850 never-smokers who provided an affirmative response to questions regarding SHS; 504 (5.7%) of these reported that they lived in a home with daily or occasional indoor smoking. Results: Productive cough and nocturnal dyspnoea were statistically associated with daily SHS exposure (ORs 1.5 [95% CI 1.04-2.0] and 1.8 [1.2-2.7], respectively). In analyses stratified by gender, nocturnal dyspnoea was associated with SHS among women (OR 1.8 [1.1-3.1]), but not among men (OR 0.93 [0.49-1.8]). Symptoms were not associated with occasional SHS exposure in the entire group, but infrequent exposure among men only was associated with increased prevalence of chronic cough; (OR 1.6; [1.04-2.6]) and was negatively associated with wheeze; (OR 0.44 [0.21-0.92)]. Conclusions: Daily SHS exposure in private homes was associated with productive cough and nocturnal dyspnoea. Our results suggest that preventive measures may be needed to reduce the respiratory effects of SHS at home.
  • Grimby-Ekman, Anna, 1967, et al. (författare)
  • Pain could negatively affect school grades - Swedish middle school students with low school grades most affected
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 Grimby-Ekman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Recurrent headache, abdominal and musculoskeletal pain are common in adolescents and it is therefore important to understand their impact on the transitional period from childhood to adulthood. However, studies of the prevalence over time and implications on educational outcomes are still limited, especially regarding multiple pain symptoms. The present study material consists of questionnaire surveys, completed in 2000 and 2008, including two study populations of 9th grade adolescents aged 15 living in West Sweden (n = 20 877). Pain symptoms and demographic variables were based on self-reports from the questionnaires, and school grades were obtained from Statistics Sweden after the student had finished their 9th grade. Between 2000 and 2008, the prevalence of abdominal pain increased among Swedish adolescents (largest increase in girls); the prevalence of headache increased only in girls; the prevalence of pain in upper body decreased only in boys. School grades were significantly lower among those with headache or abdominal pain. Among students with low school grades (10th percentile) the estimated difference between those having any of the symptoms or none were -27 school grade units (95% confidence interval for girls (-27.8; -26.0), for boys (-27.6; -25.5). Both symptoms being present pronounced the association. Low parental education increased the negative effect of symptoms on school grades, most pronounced in the group with the lowest grades. In conclusion, identification of pain symptoms may improve academic achievements, especially in students with multiple symptoms and with parents having low education. Further intervention studies are need.
  • Holm, Mathias, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and prevalence of chronic bronchitis: impact of smoking and welding. The RHINE study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. - Paris, France : International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. - 1815-7920 .- 1027-3719. ; 16:4, s. 553-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the prevalence and incidence rate of chronic bronchitis (CB) in relation to smoking habits and exposure to welding fumes in a general population sample.
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