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  • Brandeker, Alexis, et al. (författare)
  • CHEOPS geometric albedo of the hot Jupiter HD 209458 b
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter HD 209458 b in optical/visible light using the CHEOPS space telescope. Our measurement of 20.4+3.2-3.3 parts per million translates into a geometric albedo of Ag = 0.096 ± 0.016. The previously estimated dayside temperature of about 1500 K implies that our geometric albedo measurement consists predominantly of reflected starlight and is largely uncontaminated by thermal emission. This makes the present result one of the most robust measurements of Ag for any exoplanet. Our calculations of the bandpass-integrated geometric albedo demonstrate that the measured value of Ag is consistent with a cloud-free atmosphere, where starlight is reflected via Rayleigh scattering by hydrogen molecules, and the water and sodium abundances are consistent with stellar metallicity. We predict that the bandpass-integrated TESS geometric albedo is too faint to detect and that a phase curve of HD 209458 b observed by CHEOPS would have a distinct shape associated with Rayleigh scattering if the atmosphere is indeed cloud free.
  • Chauvin, Maxime, et al. (författare)
  • Calibration and performance studies of the balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter PoGO
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 859, s. 125-133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polarimetric observations of celestial sources in the hard X-ray band stand to provide new information on emission mechanisms and source geometries. PoGO+ is a Compton scattering polarimeter (20-150 keV) optimised for the observation of the Crab (pulsar and wind nebula) and Cygnus X-1 (black hole binary), from a stratospheric balloon-borne platform launched from the Esrange Space Centre in summer 2016. Prior to flight, the response of the polarimeter has been studied with polarised and unpolarised X-rays allowing a Geant4-based simulation model to be validated. The expected modulation factor for Crab observations is found to be M-Crab = (41.75 +/- 0.85)%, resulting in an expected Minimum Detectable Polarisation (MDP) of 7.3% for a 7 day flight. This will allow a measurement of the Crab polarisation parameters with at least 5 sigma statistical significance assuming a polarisation fraction similar to 20% - a significant improvement over the PoGOLite Pathfinder mission which flew in 2013 and from which the PoGO+ design is developed.
  • Chauvin, Maxime, et al. (författare)
  • Optimising a balloon-borne polarimeter in the hard X-ray domain : From the PoGOLite Pathfinder to PoGO
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - : Elsevier. - 0927-6505 .- 1873-2852. ; 82, s. 99-107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PoGOLite is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter dedicated to the study of point sources. Compton scattered events are registered using an array of plastic scintillator units to determine the polarisation of incident X-rays in the energy range 20-240 keV. In 2013, a near circumpolar balloon flight of 14 days duration was completed after launch from Esrange, Sweden, resulting in a measurement of the linear polarisation of the Crab emission. Building on the experience gained from this Pathfinder flight, the polarimeter is being modified to improve performance for a second flight in 2016. Such optimisations, based on Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations, take into account the source characteristics, the instrument response and the background environment which is dominated by atmospheric neutrons. This paper describes the optimisation of the polarimeter and details the associated increase in performance. The resulting design, PoGO+, is expected to improve the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (MDP) for the Crab from 19.8% to 11.1% for a 5 day flight. Assuming the same Crab polarisation fraction as measured during the 2013 flight, this improvement in MDP will allow a 5 sigma constrained result. It will also allow the study of the nebula emission only (Crab off-pulse) and Cygnus X-1 if in the hard state.
  • Chauvin, Maxime, et al. (författare)
  • PoGO + polarimetric constraint on the synchrotron jet emission of Cygnus X-1
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters. - : Oxford University Press. - 1745-3925 .- 1745-3933 .- 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 483:1, s. L138-L143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a polarimetric constraint on the hard X-ray synchrotron jet emission from the Cygnus X-1 black hole binary system. The observational data were obtained using the PoGO+ hard X-ray polarimeter in 2016 July, when Cygnus X-1 was in the hard state. We have previously reported that emission from an extended corona with a low polarization fraction is dominating, and that the polarization angle is perpendicular to the disc surface. In the soft gamma-ray regime, a highly polarized synchrotron jet is reported with INTEGRAL observations. To constrain the polarization fraction and flux of such a jet component in the hard X-ray regime, we now extend analyses through vector calculations in the Stokes QU plane, where the dominant corona emission and the jet component are considered simultaneously. The presence of another emission component with different polarization angle could partly cancel out the net polarization. The 90 per cent upper limit of the polarization fraction for the additional synchrotron jet component is estimated as <10 per cent, <5 per cent, and <5 per cent for polarization angle perpendicular to the disc surface, parallel to the surface, and aligned with the emission reported by INTEGRAL data, respectively. From the 20-180 keV total flux of 2.6 × 10 -8 erg s -1 cm -2, the upper limit of the polarized flux is estimated as < 3 × 10 -9 erg s -1 cm -2.
  • Chauvin, Maxime, et al. (författare)
  • Preflight performance studies of the PoGOLite hard X-ray polarimeter
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - : Elsevier BV. - 0927-6505 .- 1873-2852. ; 72, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polarimetric studies of astrophysical sources can make important contributions to resolve the geometry of the emitting region and determine the photon emission mechanism. PoGOLite is a balloon-borne polarimeter operating in the hard X-ray band (25-240 key), with a Pathfinder mission focussing on Crab observations. Within the polarimeter, the distribution of Compton scattering angles is used to determine the polarisation fraction and angle of incident photons. To assure an unbiased measurement of the polarisation during a balloon flight it is crucial to characterise the performance of the instrument before the launch. This paper presents the results of the PoGOLite calibration tests and simulations performed before the 2013 balloon flight. The tests performed confirm that the polarimeter does not have any intrinsic asymmetries and therefore does not induce bias into the measurements. Generally, good agreement is found between results from test data and simulations which allows the polarimeter performance to be estimated for Crab observations.
  • Chauvin, Maxime, et al. (författare)
  • The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Experimental astronomy. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0922-6435 .- 1572-9508. ; 41:1, s. 17-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the three Crab observations conducted. The signal-to-background ratio for the observations is shown to be 0.25 ±0.03 and the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (99 % C.L.) is (28.4 ±2.2) %. A strategy for the continuation of the PoGOLite programme is outlined based on experience gained during the 2013 maiden flight.
  • Cockerill, W, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life and radiographic vertebral fracture
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1433-2965 .- 0937-941X. ; 15:2, s. 113-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Vertebral fractures are associated with back pain and disability; however, relatively little is known about the impact of radiographic vertebral fractures on quality of life in population samples. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recent radiographic vertebral fracture on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Methods: Men and women aged 50 years and over were recruited from population registers in 12 European centers. Subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and had lateral spine radiographs performed. Subjects in these centers were followed prospectively and had repeat spinal radiographs performed a mean of 3.8 years later. Prevalent deformities were defined using established morphometric criteria, and incident vertebral fractures by both morphometric criteria and qualitative assessment. For each incident fracture case, three controls matched for age, gender, and center were selected: one with a prevalent deformity (at baseline) and two without prevalent deformities. All subjects were interviewed or completed a postal questionnaire instrument which included Short Form 12 (SF-12), the EQ-5D (former EuroQol), and the quality of life questionnaire of the International Osteoporosis Foundation (QUALEFFO). The median time from the second spinal radiograph until the quality of life survey was 1.9 years. Comparison between cases and their matched controls was undertaken using the signed rank test. Results: 73 subjects with incident vertebral fracture (cases), mean age 64.8 years (of whom 23 had a baseline deformity), and 196 controls, mean age 63.9 years (of whom 60 had a baseline deformity), were studied. There were strong correlations between the domain scores for each of the three instruments. There was no statistically significant difference in any of the domain scores between cases and those controls with a prevalent deformity. However, compared with the controls without a prevalent deformity the cases had significantly impaired quality of life as determined using the total QUALEFFO score (38.2 vs 33.7), the physical component score of the SF-12 (39.9 vs 43.7) and the health status score of the EQ-5D (62.3 vs 69.9). When the analysis was repeated after stratification of the cases by baseline deformity status (i.e., cases with and without a prevalent deformity at baseline), cases with a prevalent deformity had impaired quality of life compared with their matched controls, both with and without a prevalent deformity. In contrast there was no significant difference in quality of life among the cases without a prevalent deformity and either control group. Conclusion: In this population-based study a recent vertebral fracture was associated with impairment in quality of life, though this was mainly among those who had sustained a previous vertebral deformity.
  • Davies, M.B., et al. (författare)
  • Glancing through the debris disk: Photometric analysis of de Boo with CHEOPS
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 671
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. DE Boo is a unique system, with an edge-on view through the debris disk around the star. The disk, which is analogous to the Kuiper belt in the Solar System, was reported to extend from 74 to 84 AU from the central star. The high photometric precision of the Characterising Exoplanet Satellite (CHEOPS) provided an exceptional opportunity to observe small variations in the light curve due to transiting material in the disk. This is a unique chance to investigate processes in the debris disk. Methods. Photometric observations of DE Boo of a total of four days were carried out with CHEOPS. Photometric variations due to spots on the stellar surface were subtracted from the light curves by applying a two-spot model and a fourth-order polynomial. The photometric observations were accompanied by spectroscopic measurements with the 1m RCC telescope at Piszkésteto and with the SOPHIE spectrograph in order to refine the astrophysical parameters of DE Boo. Results. We present a detailed analysis of the photometric observation of DE Boo. We report the presence of nonperiodic transient features in the residual light curves with a transit duration of 0.3-0.8 days. We calculated the maximum distance of the material responsible for these variations to be 2.47 AU from the central star, much closer than most of the mass of the debris disk. Furthermore, we report the first observation of flaring events in this system. Conclusions. We interpreted the transient features as the result of scattering in an inner debris disk around DE Boo. The processes responsible for these variations were investigated in the context of interactions between planetesimals in the system.
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