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  • Pearce, Mark, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Science prospects for SPHiNX - A small satellite GRB polarimetry mission
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astroparticle physics. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 0927-6505 .- 1873-2852. ; 104, s. 54-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are exceptionally bright electromagnetic events occurring daily on the sky. The prompt emission is dominated by X-/gamma-rays. Since their discovery over 50 years ago, GRBs are primarily studied through spectral and temporal measurements. The properties of the emission jets and underlying processes are not well understood. A promising way forward is the development of missions capable of characterising the linear polarisation of the high-energy emission. For this reason, the SPHiNX mission has been developed for a small-satellite platform. The polarisation properties of incident high-energy radiation (50-600 keV) are determined by reconstructing Compton scattering interactions in a segmented array of plastic and Gd3Al2Ga3O12(Ce) (GAGG(Ce)) scintillators. During a two-year mission, similar to 200 GRBs will be observed, with similar to 50 yielding measurements where the polarisation fraction is determined with a relative error <= 10%. This is a significant improvement compared to contemporary missions. This performance, combined with the ability to reconstruct GRB localisation and spectral properties, will allow discrimination between leading classes of emission models.
  • Ray, K. K., et al. (författare)
  • EU-Wide Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Lipid-Modifying Therapy Use in Secondary and Primary Care: the DA VINCI study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2047-4873 .- 2047-4881. ; 28:11, s. 1279-1289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims To provide contemporary data on the implementation of European guideline recommendations for lipid-lowering therapies (LLTs) across different settings and populations and how this impacts low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal achievement. Methods and results An 18 country, cross-sectional, observational study of patients prescribed LLT for primary or secondary prevention in primary or secondary care across Europe. Between June 2017 and November 2018, data were collected at a single visit, including LLT in the preceding 12 months and most recent LDL-C. Primary outcome was the achievement of risk-based 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) LDL-C goal while receiving stabilized LLT; 2019 goal achievement was also assessed. Overall, 5888 patients (3000 primary and 2888 secondary prevention patients) were enrolled; 54% [95% confidence interval (CI) 52-56] achieved their risk-based 2016 goal and 33% (95% CI 32-35) achieved their risk-based 2019 goal. High-intensity statin monotherapy was used in 20% and 38% of very high-risk primary and secondary prevention patients, respectively. Corresponding 2016 goal attainment was 22% and 45% (17% and 22% for 2019 goals) for very high-risk primary and secondary prevention patients, respectively. Use of moderate-high-intensity statins in combination with ezetimibe (9%), or any LLT with PCSK9 inhibitors (1%), was low; corresponding 2016 and 2019 goal attainment was 53% and 20% (ezetimibe combination), and 67% and 58% (PCSK9i combination). Conclusion Gaps between clinical guidelines and clinical practice for lipid management across Europe persist, which will be exacerbated by the 2019 guidelines. Even with optimized statins, greater utilization of non-statin LLT is likely needed to reduce these gaps for patients at highest risk.
  • Sebastian, D., et al. (författare)
  • The EBLM project - IX. Five fully convective M-dwarfs, precisely measured with CHEOPS and TESS light curves
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 519:3, s. 3546-3563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eclipsing binaries are important benchmark objects to test and calibrate stellar structure and evolution models. This is especially true for binaries with a fully convective M-dwarf component for which direct measurements of these stars' masses and radii are difficult using other techniques. Within the potential of M-dwarfs to be exoplanet host stars, the accuracy of theoretical predictions of their radius and effective temperature as a function of their mass is an active topic of discussion. Not only the parameters of transiting exoplanets but also the success of future atmospheric characterization relies on accurate theoretical predictions. We present the analysis of five eclipsing binaries with low-mass stellar companions out of a subsample of 23, for which we obtained ultra-high-precision light curves using the CHEOPS satellite. The observation of their primary and secondary eclipses are combined with spectroscopic measurements to precisely model the primary parameters and derive the M-dwarfs mass, radius, surface gravity, and effective temperature estimates using the PYCHEOPS data analysis software. Combining these results to the same set of parameters derived from TESS light curves, we find very good agreement (better than 1 percent for radius and better than 0.2 percent for surface gravity). We also analyse the importance of precise orbits from radial velocity measurements and find them to be crucial to derive M-dwarf radii in a regime below 5 percent accuracy. These results add five valuable data points to the mass-radius diagram of fully convective M-dwarfs.
  • Swayne,, et al. (författare)
  • The EBLM project - VIII. First results for M-dwarf mass, radius, and effective temperature measurements using CHEOPS light curves
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 506:1, s. 306-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The accuracy of theoretical mass, radius, and effective temperature values for M-dwarf stars is an active topic of debate. Differences between observed and theoretical values have raised the possibility that current theoretical stellar structure and evolution models are inaccurate towards the low-mass end of the main sequence. To explore this issue, we use the CHEOPS satellite to obtain high-precision light curves of eclipsing binaries with low-mass stellar companions. We use these light curves combined with the spectroscopic orbit for the solar-type companion to measure the mass, radius, and effective temperature of the M-dwarf star. Here, we present the analysis of three eclipsing binaries. We use the pycheops data analysis software to fit the observed transit and eclipse events of each system. Two of our systems were also observed by the TESS satellite - we similarly analyse these light curves for comparison. We find consistent results between CHEOPS and TESS, presenting three stellar radii and two stellar effective temperature values of low-mass stellar objects. These initial results from our on-going observing programme with CHEOPS show that we can expect to have similar to 24 new mass, radius, and effective temperature measurements for very low-mass stars within the next few years.
  • Szabo, Gy M., et al. (författare)
  • Transit timing variations of AU Microscopii b and c*
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 659
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here we report large-amplitude transit timing variations (TTVs) for AU Microcopii b and c as detected in combined TESS (2018, 2020) and CHEOPS (2020, 2021) transit observations. AU Mic is a young planetary system with a debris disk and two transiting warm Neptunes. A TTV on the order of several minutes was previously reported for AU Mic b, which was suggested to be an outcome of mutual perturbations between the planets in the system. In 2021, we observed AU Mic b (five transits) and c (three transits) with the CHEOPS space telescope to follow-up the TTV of AU Mic b and possibly detect a TTV for AU Mic c. When analyzing TESS and CHEOPS 2020-2021 measurements together, we find that a prominent TTV emerges with a full span of >= 23 min between the two TTV extrema. Assuming that the period change results from a periodic process -such as mutual perturbations- we demonstrate that the times of transits in the summer of 2022 are expected to be 30-85 min later than predicted by the available linear ephemeris.
  • Thompson, Robin N., et al. (författare)
  • Key questions for modelling COVID-19 exit strategies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences. - : The Royal Society. - 0962-8452 .- 1471-2954. ; 287:1932
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Combinations of intense non-pharmaceutical interventions (lockdowns) were introduced worldwide to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Many governments have begun to implement exit strategies that relax restrictions while attempting to control the risk of a surge in cases. Mathematical modelling has played a central role in guiding interventions, but the challenge of designing optimal exit strategies in the face of ongoing transmission is unprecedented. Here, we report discussions from the Isaac Newton Institute 'Models for an exit strategy' workshop (11-15 May 2020). A diverse community of modellers who are providing evidence to governments worldwide were asked to identify the main questions that, if answered, would allow for more accurate predictions of the effects of different exit strategies. Based on these questions, we propose a roadmap to facilitate the development of reliable models to guide exit strategies. This roadmap requires a global collaborative effort from the scientific community and policymakers, and has three parts: (i) improve estimation of key epidemiological parameters; (ii) understand sources of heterogeneity in populations; and (iii) focus on requirements for data collection, particularly in low-to-middle-income countries. This will provide important information for planning exit strategies that balance socio-economic benefits with public health.
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