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  • Bergmann, U, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of rare events : a different look at local structure and chemistry
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. - Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Phys Biosci Div, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA. Univ Calif Davis, Dept Appl Sci, Davis, CA 95616 USA. CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA. : MUNKSGAARD INT PUBL LTD. - 0909-0495 .- 1600-5775. ; 8, s. 199-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The combination of large-acceptance high-resolution X-ray optics with bright synchrotron sources permits quantitative analysis of rare events such as X-ray fluorescence from very dilute systems, weak fluorescence transitions or X-ray Raman scattering. Transition-metal K beta fluorescence contains information about spin and oxidation state; examples of the characterization of the Mn oxidation states in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and Mn-consuming spores from the marine bacillus SG-1 are presented. Weaker features of the K beta spectrum resulting from valence-level and 'interatomic' ligand to metal transitions contain detailed information on the ligand-atom type, distance and orientation. Applications of this spectral region to characterize the local structure of model compounds are presented. X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) is an extremely rare event, but also represents a unique technique to obtain bulk-sensitive low-energy (<600 eV) X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra using hard ( 10 keV) X-rays. A photon is inelastically scattered, losing part of its energy to promote an electron into an unoccupied level. In many cases, the cross section is proportional to that of the corresponding absorption process yielding the same X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) features. XRS finds application for systems that defy XAFS analysis at low energies, e.g. liquids or highly concentrated complex systems, reactive compounds and samples under extreme conditions (pressure, temperature). Recent results are discussed.
  • Bollmann, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • Echocardiographic and electrocardiographic predictors for atrial fibrillation recurrence following cardioversion
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1540-8167 .- 1045-3873. ; 14:s10, s. 162-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Identification of suitable candidates for cardioversion currently is not based on individual electrical and mechanical atrial remodeling. Therefore, this study analyzed the meaning of atrial fibrillatory rate obtained from the surface ECG (as a measure of electrical remodeling) and left atrial size (as measure of mechanical remodeling) for prediction of early atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence following cardioversion. Methods and Results: Forty-four consecutive patients (26 men and 18 women, mean age 62 ± 11 years, no antiarrhythmic medication at baseline) with persistent AF were studied. Fibrillatory rate was obtained from high-gain, high-resolution surface ECG using digital signal processing (filtering, QRST subtraction, Fourier analysis) before electrical cardioversion. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis revealed larger systolic left atrial area (Beta = 0.176, P = 0.031) obtained by precardioversion echocardiogram from the apical four-chamber view and higher atrial fibrillatory rate (Beta = 0.029, P = 0.021) to be independent predictors for AF recurrence (n = 13). Stratification based on the regression equation (electromechanical index [EMI]= 0.176 systolic left atrial area + 0.029 fibrillatory rate − 17.674) allowed identification of groups at low, intermediate, or high risk. No patient with an EMI < −1.85 had early AF recurrence, as opposed to 78% with an EMI > −0.25. Intermediate results (40% recurrence rate) were obtained when the calculated EMI ranged between −1.85 and −0.25 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Fibrillatory rate obtained from the surface ECG and systolic left atrial area obtained by echocardiography may predict early AF recurrence in patients with persistent AF. These parameters might be useful in identifying candidates with a high likelihood of remaining in sinus rhythm after cardioversion.
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