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Sökning: WFRF:(Lammer H.)

  • Resultat 11-20 av 28
  • Föregående 1[2]3Nästa
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11.
  • Lammer, H., et al. (författare)
  • What makes a planet habitable?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review. - 0935-4956 .- 1432-0754. ; 17:2, s. 181-249
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This work reviews factors which are important for the evolution of habitable Earth-like planets such as the effects of the host star dependent radiation and particle fluxes on the evolution of atmospheres and initial water inventories. We discuss the geodynamical and geophysical environments which are necessary for planets where plate tectonics remain active over geological time scales and for planets which evolve to one-plate planets. The discoveries of methane-ethane surface lakes on Saturn's large moon Titan, subsurface water oceans or reservoirs inside the moons of Solar System gas giants such as Europa, Ganymede, Titan and Enceladus and more than 335 exoplanets, indicate that the classical definition of the habitable zone concept neglects more exotic habitats and may fail to be adequate for stars which are different from our Sun. A classification of four habitat types is proposed. Class I habitats represent bodies on which stellar and geophysical conditions allow Earth-analog planets to evolve so that complex multi-cellular life forms may originate. Class II habitats includes bodies on which life may evolve but due to stellar and geophysical conditions that are different from the class I habitats, the planets rather evolve toward Venus- or Mars-type worlds where complex life-forms may not develop. Class III habitats are planetary bodies where subsurface water oceans exist which interact directly with a silicate-rich core, while class IV habitats have liquid water layers between two ice layers, or liquids above ice. Furthermore, we discuss from the present viewpoint how life may have originated on early Earth, the possibilities that life may evolve on such Earth-like bodies and how future space missions may discover manifestations of extraterrestrial life.
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12.
  • Alibert, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Origin and Formation of Planetary Systems
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 19-32
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To estimate the occurrence of terrestrial exoplanets and maximize the chance of finding them, it is crucial to understand the formation of planetary systems in general and that of terrestrial planets in particular. We show that a reliable formation theory should not only explain the formation of the Solar System, with small terrestrial planets within a few AU and gas giants farther out, but also the newly discovered exoplanetary systems with close-in giant planets. Regarding the presently known exoplanets, we stress that our current knowledge is strongly biased by the sensitivity limits of current detection techniques (mainly the radial velocity method). With time and improved detection methods, the diversity of planets and orbits in exoplanetary systems will definitely increase and help to constrain the formation theory further. In this work, we review the latest state of planetary formation in relation to the origin and evolution of habitable terrestrial planets.
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13.
  • Brack, A., et al. (författare)
  • Origin and Evolution of Life on Terrestrial Planets
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 69-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The ultimate goal of terrestrial planet-finding missions is not only to discover terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars but also to address the major question as to whether life may have evolved on a habitable Earth-like exoplanet outside our Solar System. We note that the chemical evolution that finally led to the origin of life on Earth must be studied if we hope to understand the principles of how life might evolve on other terrestrial planets in the Universe. This is not just an anthropocentric point of view: the basic ingredients of terrestrial life, that is, reduced carbon-based molecules and liquid H2O, have very specific properties. We discuss the origin of life from the chemical evolution of its precursors to the earliest life-forms and the biological implications of the stellar radiation and energetic particle environments. Likewise, the study of the biological evolution that has generated the various life-forms on Earth provides clues toward the understanding of the interconnectedness of life with its environment.
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14.
  • Cockell, C.S., et al. (författare)
  • Habitability : a review
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074 .- 1557-8070. ; 16:1, s. 89-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Habitability is a widely used word in the geoscience, planetary science, and astrobiology literature, but what does it mean? In this review on habitability, we define it as the ability of an environment to support the activity of at least one known organism. We adopt a binary definition of “habitability” and a “habitable environment.” An environment either can or cannot sustain a given organism. However, environments such as entire planets might be capable of supporting more or less species diversity or biomass compared with that of Earth. A clarity in understanding habitability can be obtained by defining instantaneous habitability as the conditions at any given time in a given environment required to sustain the activity of at least one known organism, and continuous planetary habitability as the capacity of a planetary body to sustain habitable conditions on some areas of its surface or within its interior over geological timescales. We also distinguish between surface liquid water worlds (such as Earth) that can sustain liquid water on their surfaces and interior liquid water worlds, such as icy moons and terrestrial-type rocky planets with liquid water only in their interiors. This distinction is important since, while the former can potentially sustain habitable conditions for oxygenic photosynthesis that leads to the rise of atmospheric oxygen and potentially complex multicellularity and intelligence over geological timescales, the latter are unlikely to. Habitable environments do not need to contain life. Although the decoupling of habitability and the presence of life may be rare on Earth, it may be important for understanding the habitability of other planetary bodies
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15.
  • Dvorak, R., et al. (författare)
  • Dynamical Habitability of Planetary Systems
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 33-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component ( e. g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries).
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16.
  • Fridlund, M., et al. (författare)
  • A Roadmap for the Detection and Characterization of Other Earths
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 113-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Space Agency and other space agencies such as NASA recognize that the question with regard to life beyond Earth in general, and the associated issue of the existence and study of exoplanets in particular, is of paramount importance for the 21(st) century. The new Cosmic Vision science plan, Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, which is built around four major themes, has as its first theme: "What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life?'' This main theme is addressed through further questions: (1) How do gas and dust give rise to stars and planets? (2) How will the search for and study of exoplanets eventually lead to the detection of life outside Earth (biomarkers*)? (3) How did life in the Solar System arise and evolve? Although ESA has busied itself with these issues since the beginning of the Darwin study in 1996, it has become abundantly clear that, as these topics have evolved, only a very large effort, addressed from the ground and from space with the utilization of different instruments and space missions, can provide the empirical results required for a complete understanding. The good news is that the problems can be addressed and solved within a not-too-distant future. In this short essay, we present the present status of a roadmap related to projects that are related to the key long-term goal of understanding and characterizing exoplanets, in particular Earthlike planets.
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17.
  • Fridlund, M., et al. (författare)
  • The Search for Worlds Like Our Own
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 5-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The direct detection of Earth-like exoplanets orbiting nearby stars and the characterization of such planets particularly, their evolution, their atmospheres, and their ability to host life-constitute a significant problem. The quest for other worlds as abodes of life has been one of mankind's great questions for several millennia. For instance, as stated by Epicurus similar to 300 BC: "Other worlds, with plants and other living things, some of them similar and some of them different from ours, must exist.'' Demokritos from Abdera (460-370 BC), the man who invented the concept of indivisible small parts-atoms-also held the belief that other worlds exist around the stars and that some of these worlds may be inhabited by life-forms. The idea of the plurality of worlds and of life on them has since been held by scientists like Johannes Kepler and William Herschel, among many others. Here, one must also mention Giordano Bruno. Born in 1548, Bruno studied in France and came into contact with the teachings of Nicolas Copernicus. He wrote the book De l'Infinito, Universo e Mondi in 1584, in which he claimed that the Universe was infinite, that it contained an infinite amount of worlds like Earth, and that these worlds were inhabited by intelligent beings. At the time, this was extremely controversial, and eventually Bruno was arrested by the church and burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, as a heretic, for promoting this and other equally confrontational issues (though it is unclear exactly which idea was the one that ultimately brought him to his end). In all the aforementioned cases, the opinions and results were arrived at through reasoning-not by experiment. We have only recently acquired the technological capability to observe planets orbiting stars other than our Sun; acquisition of this capability has been a remarkable feat of our time. We show in this introduction to the Habitability Primer that mankind is at the dawning of an age when, by way of the scientific method and 21(st)-century technology, we will be able to answer this fascinating controversial issue that has persisted for at least 2500 years.
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18.
  • Kaltenegger, L., et al. (författare)
  • Deciphering Spectral Fingerprints of Habitable Exoplanets
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 89-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We discuss how to read a planet's spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have advanced to a level where we now have the capability to find planets of less than 10 Earth masses (M-Earth) (so-called "super Earths''), which may be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess whether they are habitable? This new field of exoplanet search has shown an extraordinary capacity to combine research in astrophysics, chemistry, biology, and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understanding our place in the Universe. The results of a first-generation mission will most likely generate an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution, and our planet into an overall context.
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19.
  • Kaltenegger, L., et al. (författare)
  • Stellar Aspects of Habitability-Characterizing Target Stars for Terrestrial Planet-Finding Missions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astrobiology. - 1531-1074. ; 10:1, s. 103-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present and discuss the criteria for selecting potential target stars suitable for the search for Earth-like planets, with a special emphasis on the stellar aspects of habitability. Missions that search for terrestrial exoplanets will explore the presence and habitability of Earth-like exoplanets around several hundred nearby stars, mainly F, G, K, and M stars. The evaluation of the list of potential target systems is essential in order to develop mission concepts for a search for terrestrial exoplanets. Using the Darwin All Sky Star Catalogue (DASSC), we discuss the selection criteria, configuration-dependent subcatalogues, and the implication of stellar activity for habitability.
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20.
  • Lammer, H., et al. (författare)
  • Exoplanet status report: Observation, characterization and evolution of exoplanets and their host stars
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Solar System Research. - 1608-3423 .- 0038-0946. ; 44:4, s. 290-310
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • After the discovery of more than 400 planets beyond our Solar System, the characterization of exoplanets as well as their host stars can be considered as one of the fastest growing fields in space science during the past decade. The characterization of exoplanets can only be carried out in a well coordinated interdisciplinary way which connects planetary science, solar/stellar physics and astrophysics. We present a status report on the characterization of exoplanets and their host stars by reviewing the relevant space- and ground-based projects. One finds that the previous strategy changed from space mission concepts which were designed to search, find and characterize Earth-like rocky exoplanets to: A statistical study of planetary objects in order to get information about their abundance, an identification of potential target and finally its analysis. Spectral analysis of exoplanets is mandatory, particularly to identify bio-signatures on Earth-like planets. Direct characterization of exoplanets should be done by spectroscopy, both in the visible and in the infrared spectral range. The way leading to the direct detection and characterization of exoplanets is then paved by several questions, either concerning the pre-required science or the associated observational strategy.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 28
  • Föregående 1[2]3Nästa

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