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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Lander Eric S.) ;srt2:(2005-2009)"

Sökning: WFRF:(Lander Eric S.) > (2005-2009)

  • Resultat 11-17 av 17
  • Föregående 1[2]
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11.
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12.
  • Clamp, Michele, et al. (författare)
  • Distinguishing protein-coding and noncoding genes in the human genome
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - : Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 104:49, s. 19428-19433
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although the Human Genome Project was completed 4 years ago, the catalog of human protein-coding genes remains a matter of controversy. Current catalogs list a total of ≈24,500 putative protein-coding genes. It is broadly suspected that a large fraction of these entries are functionally meaningless ORFs present by chance in RNA transcripts, because they show no evidence of evolutionary conservation with mouse or dog. However, there is currently no scientific justification for excluding ORFs simply because they fail to show evolutionary conservation: the alternative hypothesis is that most of these ORFs are actually valid human genes that reflect gene innovation in the primate lineage or gene loss in the other lineages. Here, we reject this hypothesis by carefully analyzing the nonconserved ORFs—specifically, their properties in other primates. We show that the vast majority of these ORFs are random occurrences. The analysis yields, as a by-product, a major revision of the current human catalogs, cutting the number of protein-coding genes to ≈20,500. Specifically, it suggests that nonconserved ORFs should be added to the human gene catalog only if there is clear evidence of an encoded protein. It also provides a principled methodology for evaluating future proposed additions to the human gene catalog. Finally, the results indicate that there has been relatively little true innovation in mammalian protein-coding genes.
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13.
  • Gnerre, Sante, et al. (författare)
  • Assisted assembly : how to improve a de novo genome assembly by using related species
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 10:8, s. R88-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe a new assembly algorithm, where a genome assembly with low sequence coverage, either throughout the genome or locally, due to cloning bias, is considerably improved through an assisting process via a related genome. We show that the information provided by aligning the whole-genome shotgun reads of the target against a reference genome can be used to substantially improve the quality of the resulting assembly.
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14.
  • Karlsson, Elinor K., et al. (författare)
  • Efficient mapping of mendelian traits in dogs through genome-wide association
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 39:11, s. 1321-1328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With several hundred genetic diseases and an advantageous genome structure, dogs are ideal for mapping genes that cause disease. Here we report the development of a genotyping array with |[sim]|27,000 SNPs and show that genome-wide association mapping of mendelian traits in dog breeds can be achieved with only |[sim]|20 dogs. Specifically, we map two traits with mendelian inheritance: the major white spotting (S) locus and the hair ridge in Rhodesian ridgebacks. For both traits, we map the loci to discrete regions of <1 Mb. Fine-mapping of the S locus in two breeds refines the localization to a region of |[sim]|100 kb contained within the pigmentation-related gene MITF. Complete sequencing of the white and solid haplotypes identifies candidate regulatory mutations in the melanocyte-specific promoter of MITF. Our results show that genome-wide association mapping within dog breeds, followed by fine-mapping across multiple breeds, will be highly efficient and generally applicable to trait mapping, providing insights into canine and human health.
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15.
  • Miller, Webb, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 456:7220, s. 387-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 1994, two independent groups extracted DNA from several Pleistocene epoch mammoths and noted differences among individual specimens. Subsequently, DNA sequences have been published for a number of extinct species. However, such ancient DNA is often fragmented and damaged, and studies to date have typically focused on short mitochondrial sequences, never yielding more than a fraction of a per cent of any nuclear genome. Here we describe 4.17 billion bases (Gb) of sequence from several mammoth specimens, 3.3 billion (80%) of which are from the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) genome and thus comprise an extensive set of genome-wide sequence from an extinct species. Our data support earlier reports that elephantid genomes exceed 4 Gb. The estimated divergence rate between mammoth and African elephant is half of that between human and chimpanzee. The observed number of nucleotide differences between two particular mammoths was approximately one-eighth of that between one of them and the African elephant, corresponding to a separation between the mammoths of 1.5-2.0 Myr. The estimated probability that orthologous elephant and mammoth amino acids differ is 0.002, corresponding to about one residue per protein. Differences were discovered between mammoth and African elephant in amino-acid positions that are otherwise invariant over several billion years of combined mammalian evolution. This study shows that nuclear genome sequencing of extinct species can reveal population differences not evident from the fossil record, and perhaps even discover genetic factors that affect extinction.
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  • Resultat 11-17 av 17
  • Föregående 1[2]

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