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Sökning: WFRF:(Lander Eric S.)

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  • Föregående 123[4]5Nästa
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31.
  • Gnerre, Sante, et al. (författare)
  • Assisted assembly : how to improve a de novo genome assembly by using related species
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X. ; 10:8, s. R88-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We describe a new assembly algorithm, where a genome assembly with low sequence coverage, either throughout the genome or locally, due to cloning bias, is considerably improved through an assisting process via a related genome. We show that the information provided by aligning the whole-genome shotgun reads of the target against a reference genome can be used to substantially improve the quality of the resulting assembly.
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32.
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33.
  • Jones, Felicity C., et al. (författare)
  • The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 484:7392, s. 55-61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Marine stickleback fish have colonized and adapted to thousands of streams and lakes formed since the last ice age, providing an exceptional opportunity to characterize genomic mechanisms underlying repeated ecological adaptation in nature. Here we develop a high-quality reference genome assembly for threespine sticklebacks. By sequencing the genomes of twenty additional individuals from a global set of marine and freshwater populations, we identify a genome-wide set of loci that are consistently associated with marine-freshwater divergence. Our results indicate that reuse of globally shared standing genetic variation, including chromosomal inversions, has an important role in repeated evolution of distinct marine and freshwater sticklebacks, and in the maintenance of divergent ecotypes during early stages of reproductive isolation. Both coding and regulatory changes occur in the set of loci underlying marine-freshwater evolution, but regulatory changes appear to predominate in this well known example of repeated adaptive evolution in nature.
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34.
  • Karlsson, Elinor K., et al. (författare)
  • Efficient mapping of mendelian traits in dogs through genome-wide association
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 39:11, s. 1321-1328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With several hundred genetic diseases and an advantageous genome structure, dogs are ideal for mapping genes that cause disease. Here we report the development of a genotyping array with |[sim]|27,000 SNPs and show that genome-wide association mapping of mendelian traits in dog breeds can be achieved with only |[sim]|20 dogs. Specifically, we map two traits with mendelian inheritance: the major white spotting (S) locus and the hair ridge in Rhodesian ridgebacks. For both traits, we map the loci to discrete regions of <1 Mb. Fine-mapping of the S locus in two breeds refines the localization to a region of |[sim]|100 kb contained within the pigmentation-related gene MITF. Complete sequencing of the white and solid haplotypes identifies candidate regulatory mutations in the melanocyte-specific promoter of MITF. Our results show that genome-wide association mapping within dog breeds, followed by fine-mapping across multiple breeds, will be highly efficient and generally applicable to trait mapping, providing insights into canine and human health.
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35.
  • Karlsson, Elinor K, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analyses implicate 33 loci in heritable dog osteosarcoma, including regulatory variants near CDKN2A/B
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - : BioMed Central. - 1465-6906 .- 1474-760X .- 1474-7596. ; 14:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Canine osteosarcoma is clinically nearly identical to the human disease, but is common and highly heritable, making genetic dissection feasible.RESULTS: Through genome-wide association analyses in three breeds (greyhounds, Rottweilers, and Irish wolfhounds), we identify 33 inherited risk loci explaining 55% to 85% of phenotype variance in each breed. The greyhound locus exhibiting the strongest association, located 150 kilobases upstream of the genes CDKN2A/B, is also the most rearranged locus in canine osteosarcoma tumors. The top germline candidate variant is found at a >90% frequency in Rottweilers and Irish wolfhounds, and alters an evolutionarily constrained element that we show has strong enhancer activity in human osteosarcoma cells. In all three breeds, osteosarcoma-associated loci and regions of reduced heterozygosity are enriched for genes in pathways connected to bone differentiation and growth. Several pathways, including one of genes regulated by miR124, are also enriched for somatic copy-number changes in tumors.CONCLUSIONS: Mapping a complex cancer in multiple dog breeds reveals a polygenic spectrum of germline risk factors pointing to specific pathways as drivers of disease.
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36.
  • Kirby, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Mutations causing medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 lie in a large VNTR in MUC1 missed by massively parallel sequencing
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 45:3, s. 299-303
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although genetic lesions responsible for some mendelian disorders can be rapidly discovered through massively parallel sequencing of whole genomes or exomes, not all diseases readily yield to such efforts. We describe the illustrative case of the simple mendelian disorder medullary cystic kidney disease type 1 (MCKD1), mapped more than a decade ago to a 2-Mb region on chromosome 1. Ultimately, only by cloning, capillary sequencing and de novo assembly did we find that each of six families with MCKD1 harbors an equivalent but apparently independently arising mutation in sequence markedly under-represented in massively parallel sequencing data: the insertion of a single cytosine in one copy (but a different copy in each family) of the repeat unit comprising the extremely long (similar to 1.5-5 kb), GC-rich (>80%) coding variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequence in the MUC1 gene encoding mucin 1. These results provide a cautionary tale about the challenges in identifying the genes responsible for mendelian, let alone more complex, disorders through massively parallel sequencing.
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37.
  • Miller, Webb, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 456:7220, s. 387-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 1994, two independent groups extracted DNA from several Pleistocene epoch mammoths and noted differences among individual specimens. Subsequently, DNA sequences have been published for a number of extinct species. However, such ancient DNA is often fragmented and damaged, and studies to date have typically focused on short mitochondrial sequences, never yielding more than a fraction of a per cent of any nuclear genome. Here we describe 4.17 billion bases (Gb) of sequence from several mammoth specimens, 3.3 billion (80%) of which are from the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) genome and thus comprise an extensive set of genome-wide sequence from an extinct species. Our data support earlier reports that elephantid genomes exceed 4 Gb. The estimated divergence rate between mammoth and African elephant is half of that between human and chimpanzee. The observed number of nucleotide differences between two particular mammoths was approximately one-eighth of that between one of them and the African elephant, corresponding to a separation between the mammoths of 1.5-2.0 Myr. The estimated probability that orthologous elephant and mammoth amino acids differ is 0.002, corresponding to about one residue per protein. Differences were discovered between mammoth and African elephant in amino-acid positions that are otherwise invariant over several billion years of combined mammalian evolution. This study shows that nuclear genome sequencing of extinct species can reveal population differences not evident from the fossil record, and perhaps even discover genetic factors that affect extinction.
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38.
  • Moralejo, Daniel H, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic dissection of lymphopenia from autoimmunity by introgression of mutated Ian5 gene onto the F344 rat.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Autoimmunity. - : Elsevier. - 0896-8411. ; 21:4, s. 315-324
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Peripheral T cell lymphopenia (lyp) in the BioBreeding (BB) rat is linked to a frameshift mutation in Ian5, a member of the Immune Associated Nucleotide (Ian) gene family on rat chromosome 4. This lymphopenia leads to type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (T1DM) at rates up to 100% when combined with the BB rat MHC RT1 u/u genotype. In order, to better study the lymphopenia phenotype without possible confounding effects of diabetes or other autoimmune disease, we generated congenic F344.lyp rats by introgression of lyp on diabetes-resistant MHC RT1 lv1/lv1 F344 rats. Analysis of thymic CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes revealed no difference in the percentage of CD4(-)CD8(+)and CD4(+)CD8(-)subsets in lyp/lyp compared to +/+ F344 rats. The same subsets was however dramatically reduced in blood (P=0.005), spleen (P=0.019) and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) (P<0.0001). Compared to F344 +/+ rats double positive CD4(+)CD8(+)T cells were increased only in lyp/lyp spleen (P=0.034) while double n
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39.
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40.
  • Tonomura, Noriko, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide Association Study Identifies Shared Risk Loci Common to Two Malignancies in Golden Retrievers
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dogs, with their breed-determined limited genetic background, are great models of human disease including cancer. Canine B-cell lymphoma and hemangiosarcoma are both malignancies of the hematologic system that are clinically and histologically similar to human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and angiosarcoma, respectively. Golden retrievers in the US show significantly elevated lifetime risk for both B-cell lymphoma (6%) and hemangiosarcoma (20%). We conducted genome-wide association studies for hemangiosarcoma and B-cell lymphoma, identifying two shared predisposing loci. The two associated loci are located on chromosome 5, and together contribute similar to 20% of the risk of developing these cancers. Genome-wide p-values for the top SNP of each locus are 4.6x10(-7) and 2.7x10(-6), respectively. Whole genome resequencing of nine cases and controls followed by genotyping and detailed analysis identified three shared and one B-cell lymphoma specific risk haplotypes within the two loci, but no coding changes were associated with the risk haplotypes. Gene expression analysis of B-cell lymphoma tumors revealed that carrying the risk haplotypes at the first locus is associated with down-regulation of several nearby genes including the proximal gene TRPC6, a transient receptor Ca2+-channel involved in T-cell activation, among other functions. The shared risk haplotype in the second locus overlaps the vesicle transport and release gene STX8. Carrying the shared risk haplotype is associated with gene expression changes of 100 genes enriched for pathways involved in immune cell activation. Thus, the predisposing germ-line mutations in B-cell lymphoma and hemangio-sarcoma appear to be regulatory, and affect pathways involved in T-cell mediated immune response in the tumor. This suggests that the interaction between the immune system and malignant cells plays a common role in the tumorigenesis of these relatively different cancers.
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  • Föregående 123[4]5Nästa
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