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  • Cederlöf, Elin, et al. (författare)
  • Pregnancy Complications and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Later in Life : A Nationwide Cohort Study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 2047-9980. ; 11:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between pregnancy complications and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) after adjustment for major confounding.Methods and Results: In a nationwide register‐based cohort study, women with singleton births between 1973 and 2014 were included from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Outcomes of mortality and hospitalizations of CVD were collected from the Cause of Death Register and the National Inpatient Register. The cohort was followed from the date of the first delivery until death or end of follow‐up, whichever occurred first. The pregnancy complications studied were preeclampsia or eclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and stillbirth. Among the 2 134 239 women (mean age at first pregnancy, 27.0 [SD, 5.1] and mean parity 1.96 [SD, 0.9]), 19.1% (N=407 597) had 1 of the studied pregnancy complications. All pregnancy complications were associated with all‐cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalization for CVD (ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease) after adjustment for major confounding in a Cox proportional hazard regression model. The adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality was 1.84 (95% CI, 1.38–2.44) for preterm birth and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.81–5.44) for stillbirth.Conclusions: In this large cohort study, pregnancy complications were associated with all‐cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalizations for CVD, also after adjusting for confounding, including overweight, smoking, and comorbidities. The study highlights that less established pregnancy complications such as preterm birth and stillbirth are also associated with cardiovascular mortality and CVD.
  • Christersson, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • The utility of coagulation activity for prediction of risk of mortality and cardiovascular events in guideline-treated myocardial infarction patients
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 122:4, s. 224-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Despite improved treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), real-world patients still suffer substantial risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Little is known about coagulation activity shortly after MI and whether coagulation activity markers may identify patients at increased risk despite contemporary treatment.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate D-dimer concentration and thrombin generation potential shortly after discharge after MI and evaluate if these markers could predict the risk of future cardiovascular and bleeding events.METHODS: Unselected MI patients (n = 421) were included in the observational REBUS study (NCT01102933) and followed for two years. D-dimer concentrations, thrombin peak, and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) were analyzed at inclusion (3-5 days after MI) and at early follow-up (after 2-3 weeks).RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (17.8%) experienced the composite endpoint (all-cause death, MI, congestive heart failure, or all-cause stroke), and 31 patients (7.4%) experienced a clinically relevant bleeding event. D-dimer concentrations at early follow-up were associated with the composite endpoint (HR [per SD increase] 1.51 [95% CI 1.22-1.87]) and with clinically relevant bleeding (HR [per SD increase] 1.80 [95% CI 1.32-2.44]). Thrombin generation potential was not significantly associated with either the composite endpoint or with clinically relevant bleeding. Higher thrombin peak and ETP at early follow-up were both inversely associated with stroke (HR [per SD increase] 0.50 [95% CI 0.30-0.81] and 0.43 [95% CI 0.22-0.83], respectively).CONCLUSION: In unselected MI patients treated according to contemporary guidelines, D-dimer measurements may identify patients at increased risk of new cardiovascular and bleeding events. The inverse association of thrombin generation potential and risk of stroke has to be further investigated.
  • Dondo, Tatendashe B., et al. (författare)
  • beta-Blockers and Mortality After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Patients Without Heart Failure or Ventricular Dysfunction
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 69:22, s. 2710-2720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: For acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without heart failure (HF), it is unclear if beta-blockers are associated with reduced mortality.OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the association between beta-blocker use and mortality in patients with AMI without HF or left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).METHODS: This cohort study used national English and Welsh registry data from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project. A total of 179,810 survivors of hospitalization with AMI without HF or LVSD, between January 1, 2007, and June 30, 2013 (final follow-up: December 31, 2013), were assessed. Survival-time inverse probability weighting propensity scores and instrumental variable analyses were used to investigate the association between the use of beta-blockers and 1-year mortality.RESULTS: Of 91,895 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 87,915 patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, 88,542 (96.4%) and 81,933 (93.2%) received beta-blockers, respectively. For the entire cohort, with> 163,772 person-years of observation, there were 9,373 deaths (5.2%). Unadjusted 1-year mortality was lower for patients who received beta-blockers compared with those who did not (4.9% vs. 11.2%; p < 0.001). However, after weighting and adjustment, there was no significant difference in mortality between those with and without beta-blocker use (average treatment effect [ATE] coefficient: 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.60 to 0.75; p = 0.827). Findings were similar for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ATE coefficient: 0.30; 95% CI: -0.98 to 1.58; p = 0.637) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (ATE coefficient: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.68 to 0.54; p = 0.819).CONCLUSIONS: Among survivors of hospitalization with AMI who did not have HF or LVSD as recorded in the hospital, the use of beta-blockers was not associated with a lower risk of death at any time point up to 1 year.
  • Edfors, R., et al. (författare)
  • Use of proteomics to identify biomarkers associated with chronic kidney disease and long-term outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 288:5, s. 581-592
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have poor outcomes following myocardial infarction (MI). We performed an untargeted examination of 175 biomarkers to identify those with the strongest association with CKD and to examine the association of those biomarkers with long-term outcomes. Methods A total of 175 different biomarkers from MI patients enrolled in the Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry were analysed either by a multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry assay or by a multiplex assay (proximity extension assay). Random forests statistical models were used to assess the predictor importance of biomarkers, CKD and outcomes. Results A total of 1098 MI patients with a median estimated glomerular filtration rate of 85 mL min(-1)/1.73 m(2)were followed for a median of 3.2 years. The random forests analyses, without and with adjustment for differences in demography, comorbidities and severity of disease, identified six biomarkers (adrenomedullin, TNF receptor-1, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein-4, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2, growth differentiation factor-15 and TNF receptor-2) to be strongly associated with CKD. All six biomarkers were also amongst the 15 strongest predictors for death, and four of them were amongst the strongest predictors of subsequent MI and heart failure hospitalization. Conclusion In patients with MI, a proteomic approach could identify six biomarkers that best predicted CKD. These biomarkers were also amongst the most important predictors of long-term outcomes. Thus, these biomarkers indicate underlying mechanisms that may contribute to the poor prognosis seen in patients with MI and CKD.
  • Eggers, Kai, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of sex on cardiac troponin concentrations – A critical appraisal.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:9, s. 1457-1464
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:The use of sex-specific cutoffs for cardiac troponin (cTn) is currently debated. Although endorsed by scientific working groups, concerns have been raised that sex-specific cutoffs may have only a small clinical effect at the cost of increased complexity in decision-making.METHODS:We reviewed studies investigating the interrelations between high-sensitivity (hs) cTn results and sex, diagnoses, and outcome. Investigated populations included community-dwelling subjects and patients with stable angina, congestive heart failure, or acute chest pain including those with acute coronary syndromes.RESULTS:Men usually have higher hs-cTn concentrations compared with women, regardless of the assessed population or the applied assay. The distribution and prognostic implications of hs-cTn concentrations indicate that women have a broader cardiovascular risk panorama compared with men, particularly at lower hs-cTn concentrations. At higher concentrations, particularly above the 99th percentile, this variation is often attenuated. Sex-specific hs-cTn 99th percentiles have so far shown clinical net benefit in only 1 study assessing patients with chest pain. However, several methodological aspects need to be considered when interpreting study results, e.g., issues related to the determination of the 99th percentiles, the selection bias, and the lack of prospective and sufficiently powered analyses.CONCLUSIONS:Available studies do not show a consistent clinical superiority of sex-specific hs-cTn 99th percentiles. This may reflect methodological aspects. However, from a pathobiological perspective, the use of sex-specific hs-cTn 99th percentiles makes sense for the ruling in of myocardial infarction. We propose a new approach to hs-cTn 99th cutoffs taking into account the analytical properties of the used assays.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Application of Cardiac Troponin in Cardiovascular Diseases Other Than Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : AMER ASSOC CLINICAL CHEMISTRY. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:1, s. 223-235
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin concentrations in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) identify patients with ongoing cardiomyocyte necrosis who are at increased risk. However, with the use of more precise assays, cardiac troponin increases are commonly noted in other cardiovascular conditions as well. This has generated interest in the use of cardiac troponin for prognostic assessment and clinical management of these patients. In this review, we have summarized the data from studies investigating the implications of cardiac troponin concentrations in various acute and chronic conditions beyond ACS,, i.e., heart failure, myocarditis, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, aortic dissection, supraventricular arrhythmias, valve disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, stroke, and in the perioperative setting. CONTENT: Cardiac troponin concentrations are often detectable and frankly increased in non-ACS conditions, in particular when measured with high-sensitivity (hs) assays. With the exception of myocarditis and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, cardiac troponin concentrations carry strong prognostic information, mainly with respect to mortality, or incipient and/or worsening heart failure. Studies investigating the prognostic benefit associated with cardiac troponin guided treatments however, are almost lacking and the potential role of cardiac troponin in the management of non-ACS conditions is not defined. SUMMARY: Increased cardiac troponin indicates increased risk for adverse outcome in patients with various cardiovascular conditions beyond ACS. Routine measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations can however, not be generally recommended unless there is a suspicion of ACS. Nonetheless, any finding of an increased cardiac troponin concentration in a patient without ACS should at least prompt the search for possible underlying conditions and these should be managed meticulously according to current guidelines to improve outcome.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • B-type natriuretic peptides and their relation to cardiovascular structure and function in a population-based sample of subjects aged 70 years
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-9149 .- 1879-1913. ; 103:7, s. 1032-1038
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) could serve as screening markers for the detection of preclinical vascular disease in the community. BNP and N-terminal-pro-BNP were analyzed in 1,000 subjects aged 70 years participating in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study and were related to different measures of endothelial function and activation, arterial compliance, carotid atherosclerosis, and echocardiographic findings. The median levels were 42.0 ng/L for BNP and 110.7 ng/L for N-terminal-pro-BNP. On adjusted multivariate analysis, the 2 BNPs were related to increased left ventricular mass and impaired left ventricular systolic and diastolic function but not to any of the other assessed entities reflecting preclinical vascular disease. In conclusion, BNPs are strong markers of increased left ventricular mass and impaired cardiac performance but cannot be regarded as useful screening markers for the detection of preclinical states of vascular disease in elderly subjects.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac Troponin Elevation in Patients Without a Specific Diagnosis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 73:1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Cardiac troponin (cTn) elevation is a common finding in acutely admitted patients, even in the absence of acute coronary syndrome. In some of these patients, no etiology of cTn elevation can be identified. The term troponinemia is sometimes used to describe this scenario.OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate the associations of cTn levels with clinical findings and long-term outcome in acutely admitted patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome who had been discharged without a specified diagnosis.METHODS Retrospective registry-based cohort study investigating 48,872 patients (SWEDEHEART [Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies] registry). Patients were stratified into cohorts with cTn levels less than or equal to the assay-specific 99th percentile and separated by assay-specific cTn tertiles in case of higher levels.RESULTS A cTn level >99th percentile was noted in 9,800 (20.1%) patients. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors as well as cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities increased across higher cTn strata. In total, 7,529 (15.4%) patients had a major adverse event (MAE), defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, readmission for heart failure, or stroke (median follow-up 4.9 years). MAE risk was associated with higher cTn strata (hazard ratio for highest assay-specific cTn tertile: 2.59; 95% confidence interval: 2.39 to 2.80; hazard ratio in patients without cardiovascular comorbidities, renal dysfunction, left ventricular dysfunction, or significant coronary stenosis: 3.57; 95% confidence interval: 2.30 to 5.54).CONCLUSIONS cTn elevation is associated with cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities and predicts major adverse events in acutely admitted patients, in whom no definite diagnosis could have been established. The term troponinemia is trivializing and should be avoided. Instead, careful work-up is required in these patients.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Cardiac Troponins and Their Prognostic Importance in Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome and Renal Dysfunction
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:8, s. 1409-1417
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin (cTn) is important for risk assessment in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). cTn concentrations may, however, be affected by renal dysfunction, and the clinical importance of this interrelation is not well established. We investigated the association between cTnT and cTnI (measured with conventional assays and a more sensitive assay) with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and also assessed the ability of cTn to predict the 1-year all-cause mortality. METHODS: This retrospective registry-based study used data from 309454 admissions to Swedish coronary care units. cTn associations with eGFR and mortality were assessed using different regression models and by calculating multivariable-adjusted c-statistics. RESULTS: cTnT concentrations exhibited stronger associations with eGFR than cTnI concentrations (conventional cTnT assay: beta = -0.113; more sensitive cTnT assay: beta = -0.186; pooled conventional cTnI assays: beta = -0.098). Overall, cTnT provided greater prognostic accuracy than cTnI. This was most evident in non-ACS patients with normal or mildly reduced eGFR when using the more sensitive assay. Despite higher mortality rates, no consistent increases in the c-statistics of cTn were seen with severely reduced eGFR irrespective of the presence of ACS or non-ACS. CONCLUSIONS: cTnT concentrations exhibited stronger associations with reduced eGFR than cTnI concentrations in patients admitted because of suspected ACS. cTnT, particularly when measured using the more sensitive assay, also tended to be a stronger prognosticator. However, the relative significance of the obtained results must be considered in the context of the severity of renal dysfunction and whether ACS is present.
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