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  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Growth-differentiation factor-15 for long-term risk prediction in patients stabilized after an episode of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-3268. ; 3:1, s. 88-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has emerged as a prognostic biomarker in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome. This study assessed the time course and the long-term prognostic relevance of GDF-15 levels measured repetitively in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome during 6 months after the acute event. METHODS AND RESULTS: GDF-15 and other biomarkers were measured at randomization, after 6 weeks, and after 3 and 6 months in 950 patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome included in the FRagmin and Fast Revascularization during InStability in Coronary artery disease II study. Study end points were death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and their composite during 5-year follow-up. Median GDF-15 levels decreased slightly from 1357 ng/L at randomization to 1302 ng/L at 6 months (P<0.001). GDF-15 was consistently related to cardiovascular risk factors and biochemical markers of hemodynamic stress, renal dysfunction, and inflammation. Moreover, GDF-15 was independently related to the 5-year risk of the composite end point when measured at both 3 months (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.8 [1.0 to 3.0]) and 6 months (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.3 [1.3 to 4.1]). Serial measurements of GDF-15 at randomization and 6 months helped to identify patient cohorts at different levels of risk, with patients with persistently elevated GDF-15 levels >1800 ng/L having the highest rate of the composite end point. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 is independently related to adverse events in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome both in the acute setting and for at least 6 months after clinical stabilization. Therefore, continued research on GDF-15 should be focused on the usefulness of GDF-15 for support of clinical management in acute and chronic ischemic heart disease.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin-Based Strategies for the Assessment of Chest Pain Patients : A Review of Validation and Clinical Implementation Studies
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : American Association for Clinical Chemistry. - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 64:11, s. 1572-1585
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The introduction of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays has improved the early assessment of chest pain patients. A number of hs-cTn-based algorithms and accelerated diagnostic protocols (ADPs) have been developed and tested subsequently. In this review, we summarize the data on the performance and clinical utility of these strategies. CONTENT: We reviewed studies investigating the diagnostic and prognostic performance of hs-cTn algorithms [level of detection (LoD) strategy, 0/1-h, 0/2-h, and 0/3-h algorithms) and of hs-cTn-based ADPs, together with the implications of these strategies when implemented as clinical routine. The LoD strategy, when combined with a nonischemic electrocardiogram, is best suited for safe rule-out of myocardial infarction and the identification of patients eligible for early discharge from the emergency department. The 0/1-h algorithms appear to identify most patients as being eligible for rule-out. The hs-cTn-based ADPs mainly focus on prognostic assessment, which is in contrast with the hs-cTn algorithms. They identify smaller proportions of rule-out patients, but there is increasing evidence from prospective studies on their successful clinical implementation. Such information is currently lacking for hs-cTn algorithms. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trade-off between safety and efficacy for different hs-cTn-based strategies. This trade-off should be considered for the intended strategy, along with its user-friendliness and evidence from clinical implementation studies. However, several gaps in knowledge remain. At present, we suggest the use of an ADP in conjunction with serial hs-cTn results to optimize the early assessment of chest pain patients. (C) 2018 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, left ventricular function, and outcome in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : MOSBY-ELSEVIER. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 197, s. 70-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cardiac troponin (cTn) levels reflect infarct size and depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). However, there is very limited information on whether cTn measured with a high-sensitivity (hs) assay would provide incremental prognostic information to the LVEF in NSTE-ACS patients. Methods This was a registry-based study (SWEDEHEART registry) investigating 20,652 NSTE-ACS patients with available information on hs-cTnT (highest level recorded during the hospitalization) and the LVEF estimated using echocardiography. All patients had been followed for 1 year. Results Hs-cTnT levels independently predicted major cardiovascular events (MACE) in cohorts with normal, slightly depressed, moderately depressed, and severely depressed LVEF. The adjusted hazard ratios in these cohorts were 1.18 (95% CI 1.13-1.23), 1.12 (95% CI 1.06-1.18), 1.12 (95% CI 1.06-1.19), and 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.30), respectively. Hs-cTnT levels were particularly predictive for cardiovascular mortality and readmission for heart failure. Excluding patients with previous cardiac disease did not affect the overall interrelations of hs-cTnT and LVEF with MACE. Conclusions Hs-cTnT levels provide incremental prognostic value independent of the LVEF in patients with NSTE-ACS. Hs-cTnT is particularly predictive for MACE in patients with severely depressed LVEF but also in those with a normal LVEF. Accordingly, a normal LVEF should not be used as an argument not to target patients to thorough workup.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Management and outcome trends in type 2 myocardial infarction : an investigation from the SWEDEHEART registry
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Springer Nature. - 2045-2322. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite poor prognosis, patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (MI) tend to be underdiagnosed and undertreated compared to those with type 1 MI. Whether this discrepancy has improved over time is uncertain. We conducted a registry-based cohort study investigating type 2 MI patients managed at Swedish coronary care units (n = 14,833) during 2010–2022. Multivariable-adjusted changes (first three vs last three calendar years of the observation period) were assessed regarding diagnostic examinations (echocardiography, coronary assessment), provision of cardioprotective medications (betablockers, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone-system inhibitors, statins) and 1-year all-cause mortality. Compared to type 1 MI patients (n = 184,329), those with type 2 MI less often had diagnostic examinations and cardioprotective medications. Increases in the use of echocardiography (OR 1.08 [95% confidence interval 1.06–1.09]) and coronary assessment (OR 1.06 [95% confidence interval 1.04–1.08]) were smaller compared to type 1 MI (pinteraction < 0.001). The provision of medications did not increase in type 2 MI. All-cause mortality rate in type 2 MI was 25.4% without temporal change (OR 1.03 [95% confidence interval 0.98–1.07]). Taken together, the provision of medications and all-cause mortality did ot improve in type 2 MI despite modest increases in diagnostic procedures. This emphasizes the need of defining optimal care pathways in these patients.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Morbidity and cause-specific mortality in first-time myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 285:4, s. 419-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarction (MI) with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is receiving increasing interest as a prognostically adverse entity distinct from myocardial infarction with significant coronary artery disease (MI-CAD). However, data are still limited regarding long-term cardiovascular morbidity and cause-specific mortality in MINOCA.METHODS: This is a registry-based cohort study using data from patients admitted to Swedish coronary care units. We investigated various nonfatal outcomes (recurrent MI, hospitalization for heart failure or stroke) and fatal outcomes (cardiovascular, respiratory or cancer-related mortality) in 4069 patients without apparent acute cardiovascular disease, used as non-MI controls, 7266 patients with first-time MINOCA and 69 267 patients with first-time MI-CAD.RESULTS: Almost all event rates (median follow-up 3.8 years) increased in a stepwise fashion across the three cohorts [rates of major adverse events (MAE; composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent MI, hospitalization for heart failure or stroke): n = 268 (6.6%), n = 1563 (21.5%), n = 17 777 (25.7%), respectively]. Compared to non-MI controls, MINOCA patients had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.12 (95% confidence interval 1.84-2.43) regarding MAE. MINOCA patients had a substantial risk of cardiovascular mortality and the highest numerical risks of respiratory and cancer-related mortality. Male sex, previous heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had a stronger prognostic impact in MINOCA than in MI-CAD. Female MINOCA patients with atrial fibrillation were at particular risk.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with first-time MINOCA have a considerable risk of adverse events. This stresses the need for a comprehensive search of the cause of MINOCA, thorough treatment of underlying disease triggers and close follow-up.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Myeloperoxidase is not useful for the early assessment of patients with chest pain
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Clinical Biochemistry. - : Elsevier BV. - 0009-9120 .- 1873-2933. ; 43:3, s. 240-245
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been listed as a potentially useful risk marker in acute coronary syndrome. However, its clinical utility in patients with acute chest pain is not yet defined. DESIGN AND METHODS: MPO (Architect, Abbott Diagnostics) was measured in 120 healthy controls and 303 chest pain patients who had been admitted to the coronary care units of three Swedish hospitals. RESULTS: Chest pain patents had significantly higher median MPO levels compared to healthy controls (120.6 vs. 78. 9 pmol/L; p<0.001). However, MPO was not useful for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction (c-statistics 0.61 [95% CI 0.54-0.67]), and Cox regression analysis revealed no independent association between MPO and mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.3 [95% CI 0.8-2.0]) or the composite endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio 1.1 [95% CI 0.8-1.5]) after a median follow-up of 4.9 years. CONCLUSIONS: MPO provided no clinically relevant information in the present population of chest pain patients.
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Myocardial Infarction with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries : The Importance of Achieving Secondary Prevention Targets
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0002-9343 .- 1555-7162. ; 131:5, s. 524-531
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Around 5-10% of all myocardial infarction patients have non-obstructive coronary arteries. Studies investigating the importance of follow-up and achievement of conventional secondary prevention targets in these patients are lacking.METHODS: In this analysis from the SWEDEHEART registry, we investigated 5830 myocardial infarction patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries (group 1) and 54,637 myocardial infarction patients with significant coronary artery disease (≥50% stenosis; group 2). Multivariable- and propensity score-adjusted statistics were used to assess the reduction in the one-year risk of major adverse events associated with prespecified secondary preventive measures: participation in follow-up at 6-10 weeks after the hospitalization; achievement of secondary prevention targets (blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the target ranges, non-smoking, participation in exercise training).RESULTS: Patients in group 1 were less often followed up compared to patients in group 2 and less often achieved any of the secondary prevention targets. Participation in the 6-10 week follow-up was associated with a 3-20% risk reduction in group 1, similar as for group 2 according to interaction analysis. The improvement in outcome in group 1 was mainly mediated by achieving target range low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (24-32% risk reduction) and, to a smaller extent, by participation in exercise training (10-23% risk reduction).CONCLUSIONS: Selected secondary preventive measures are associated with prognostic benefit in myocardial infarction patients with non-obstructive coronary arteries, in particular achieving target range low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Our results indicate that these patients should receive similar follow-up as myocardial infarction patients with significant coronary stenoses.
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