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Sökning: WFRF:(Markus Hugh S)

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  • Föregående 1...2345[6]78Nästa
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51.
  • Hindy, George, et al. (författare)
  • Role of blood lipids in the development of ischemic stroke and its subtypes : A mendelian randomization study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Stroke. - : American Heart Association. - 0039-2499 .- 1524-4628. ; 49:4, s. 820-827
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Purpose-Statin therapy is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke supporting a causal role of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. However, more evidence is needed to answer the question whether LDL cholesterol plays a causal role in ischemic stroke subtypes. In addition, it is unknown whether high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides have a causal relationship to ischemic stroke and its subtypes. Our aim was to investigate the causal role of LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in ischemic stroke and its subtypes through Mendelian randomization (MR). Methods-Summary data on 185 genome-wide lipids-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were obtained from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium and the Stroke Genetics Network for their association with ischemic stroke (n=16 851 cases and 32 473 controls) and its subtypes, including large artery atherosclerosis (n=2410), small artery occlusion (n=3186), and cardioembolic (n=3427) stroke. Inverse-variance-weighted MR was used to obtain the causal estimates. Inversevariance- weighted multivariable MR, MR-Egger, and sensitivity exclusion of pleiotropic single nucleotide polymorphisms after Steiger filtering and MR-Pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier test were used to adjust for pleiotropic bias. Results-A 1-SD genetically elevated LDL cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratio: 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.20) and large artery atherosclerosis stroke (odds ratio: 1.28; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.49) but not with small artery occlusion or cardioembolic stroke in multivariable MR. A 1-SD genetically elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with a decreased risk of small artery occlusion stroke (odds ratio: 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.90) in multivariable MR. MR-Egger indicated no pleiotropic bias, and results did not markedly change after sensitivity exclusion of pleiotropic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genetically elevated triglycerides did not associate with ischemic stroke or its subtypes. Conclusions-LDL cholesterol lowering is likely to prevent large artery atherosclerosis but may not prevent small artery occlusion nor cardioembolic strokes. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol elevation may lead to benefits in small artery disease prevention. Finally, triglyceride lowering may not yield benefits in ischemic stroke and its subtypes.
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52.
  • Kilarski, Laura L., et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis in more than 17,900 cases of ischemic stroke reveals a novel association at 12q24.12
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1526-632X .- 0028-3878. ; 83:8, s. 678-685
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Immunochip array in 3,420 cases of ischemic stroke and 6,821 controls, followed by a meta-analysis with data from more than 14,000 additional ischemic stroke cases. Methods: Using the Immunochip, we genotyped 3,420 ischemic stroke cases and 6,821 controls. After imputation we meta-analyzed the results with imputed GWAS data from 3,548 cases and 5,972 controls recruited from the ischemic stroke WTCCC2 study, and with summary statistics from a further 8,480 cases and 56,032 controls in the METASTROKE consortium. A final in silico "look-up" of 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 2,522 cases and 1,899 controls was performed. Associations were also examined in 1,088 cases with intracerebral hemorrhage and 1,102 controls. Results: In an overall analysis of 17,970 cases of ischemic stroke and 70,764 controls, we identified a novel association on chromosome 12q24 (rs10744777, odds ratio [OR] 1.10 [1.07-1.13], p = 7.12 x 10(-11)) with ischemic stroke. The association was with all ischemic stroke rather than an individual stroke subtype, with similar effect sizes seen in different stroke subtypes. There was no association with intracerebral hemorrhage (OR 1.03 [0.90-1.17], p = 0.695). Conclusion: Our results show, for the first time, a genetic risk locus associated with ischemic stroke as a whole, rather than in a subtype-specific manner. This finding was not associated with intracerebral hemorrhage.
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53.
  • Kolz, Melanie, et al. (författare)
  • Meta-analysis of 28,141 individuals identifies common variants within five new loci that influence uric acid concentrations
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 5:6, s. e1000504-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2×10−201), ABCG2 (p = 3.1×10−26), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0×10−14), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7×10−14), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0×10−9), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1×10−8), GCKR (p = 1.4×10−9), LRRC16A (p = 8.5×10−9), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7×10−9). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0×10−26) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0×10−8) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4×10−57 and p = 8.1×10−54, respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels.
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54.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Branched-chain amino acids and Alzheimer's disease : a Mendelian randomization analysis.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 7:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization study to test the hypothesis that raised plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). From a genome-wide association study of 16,596 individuals of European ancestry, we obtained summary statistics for four independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with isoleucine levels and one SNP associated with both leucine and valine levels at genome-wide significance. Summary statistics of the associations of the five SNPs with AD were obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (17,008 AD cases and 37,154 controls). Based on four SNPs, the odds ratio of AD per genetically predicted one standard deviation higher isoleucine levels was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08-1.69; p = 0.007). The leucine- and valine-raising allele was not associated with AD (p = 0.46). These data suggest that a genetic predisposition to raised plasma isoleucine levels is positively associated with AD.
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55.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Vitamin K₁ Levels in Relation to Ischemic Stroke and Its Subtypes : A Mendelian Randomization Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nutrients. - 2072-6643 .- 2072-6643. ; 10:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vitamin K plays a crucial role in blood coagulation, and hypercoagulability has been linked to atherosclerosis-related vascular disease. We used the Mendelian randomization study design to examine whether circulating vitamin K₁ (phylloquinone) levels are associated with ischemic stroke. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin K₁ levels were used as instrumental variables. Summary-level data for large artery atherosclerotic stroke (n = 4373 cases), small vessel stroke (n = 5386 cases), cardioembolic stroke (n = 7193 cases), and any ischemic stroke (n = 34,217 cases and 404,630 non-cases) were available from the MEGASTROKE consortium. Genetically-predicted circulating vitamin K₁ levels were associated with large artery atherosclerotic stroke but not with any other subtypes or ischemic stroke as a whole. The odds ratios per genetically predicted one nmol/L increase in natural log-transformed vitamin K₁ levels were 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12⁻1.53; p = 7.0 × 10-4) for large artery atherosclerotic stroke, 0.98 (95% CI 0.85⁻1.12; p = 0.73) for small vessel stroke, 1.01 (95% CI 0.90⁻1.14; p = 0.84) for cardioembolic stroke, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99⁻1.11; p = 0.11) for any ischemic stroke. These findings indicate that genetic predisposition to higher circulating vitamin K₁ levels is associated with an increased risk of large artery atherosclerotic stroke.
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56.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Differing association of alcohol consumption with different stroke types : a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - 1741-7015. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is protective against stroke, and whether any association differs by stroke type, is controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on alcohol drinking and stroke types.METHODS: Studies were identified by searching PubMed to September 1, 2016, and reference lists of retrieved articles. Additional data from 73,587 Swedish adults in two prospective studies were included. Study-specific results were combined in a random-effects model.RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 27 prospective studies with data on ischemic stroke (25 studies), intracerebral hemorrhage (11 studies), and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage (11 studies). Light and moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke, whereas high and heavy drinking was associated with an increased risk; the overall RRs were 0.90 (95 % CI, 0.85-0.95) for less than 1 drink/day, 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.87-0.97) for 1-2 drinks/day, 1.08 (95 % CI, 1.01-1.15) for more than 2-4 drinks/day, and 1.14 (95 % CI, 1.02-1.28) for more than 4 drinks/day. Light and moderate alcohol drinking was not associated with any hemorrhagic stroke subtype. High alcohol consumption (>2-4 drinks/day) was associated with a non-significant increased risk of both hemorrhagic stroke subtypes, and the relative risk for heavy drinking (>4 drinks/day) were 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.25-2.23) for intracerebral hemorrhage and 1.82 (95 % CI, 1.18-2.82) for subarachnoid hemorrhage.CONCLUSION: Light and moderate alcohol consumption was inversely associated only with ischemic stroke, whereas heavy drinking was associated with increased risk of all stroke types with a stronger association for hemorrhagic strokes.
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57.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Does Treating Vascular Risk Factors Prevent Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 64:2, s. 657-668
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has associated Alzheimer's disease (AD) with vascular risk factors (VRFs), but whether treatment of VRFs reduces the incidence of dementia and AD is uncertain.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize available data on the impact of treatment of VRFs on dementia and AD incidence.METHODS: Pertinent studies published until 1 January 2018 were identified from PubMed. Both randomized controlled trials (RCT) and prospective studies that investigated the impact of treatment of VRFs on dementia or AD incidence were included.RESULTS: Eight RCTs and 52 prospective studies were identified. Antihypertensive treatment was associated with a non-significant reduced risk of dementia in RCTs (n = 5; relative risk [RR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.02) and prospective studies (n = 3; RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.58-1.01) and with reduced AD risk in prospective studies (n = 5; RR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.91). In prospective studies, treatment of hyperlipidemia with statins, but not nonstatin lipid-lowering agents, was associated with reduced risk of dementia (n = 17; RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95) and AD (n = 13; RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80-0.92). The single RCT on statins and dementia incidence showed no association. Data from one RCT and six prospective studies did not support a beneficial impact of antidiabetic drugs or insulin therapy on dementia risk.CONCLUSION: Current evidence indicates that antihypertensives and statins might reduce the incidence of dementia and AD. Further trials to determine the effect of VRF on AD are needed.
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58.
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59.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Genetically-Predicted Adult Height and Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 60:2, s. 691-698
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Observational studies have linked increased adult height with better cognitive performance and reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear whether the associations are due to shared biological processes that influence height and AD or due to confounding by early life exposures or environmental factors.OBJECTIVE: To use a genetic approach to investigate the association between adult height and AD.METHODS: We selected 682 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with height at genome-wide significance (p < 5×10-8) in the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium. Summary statistics for each of these SNPs on AD were obtained from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP) of 17,008 individuals with AD and 37,154 controls. The estimate of the association between genetically predicted height and AD was calculated using the inverse-variance weighted method.RESULTS: The odds ratio of AD was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.95; p = 9.8×10-5) per one standard deviation increase (about 6.5 cm) in genetically predicted height based on 682 SNPs, which were clustered in 419 loci. In an analysis restricted to one SNP from each height-associated locus (n = 419 SNPs), the corresponding OR was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-0.97; p = 4.8×10-3).CONCLUSIONS: This finding suggests that biological processes that influence adult height may have a role in the etiology of AD.
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60.
  • Larsson, Susanna C., et al. (författare)
  • Homocysteine and small vessel stroke : A mendelian randomization analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 85:4, s. 495-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Trials of B vitamin therapy to lower blood total homocysteine (tHcy) levels for prevention of stroke are inconclusive. Secondary analyses of trial data and epidemiological studies suggest that tHcy levels may be particularly associated with small vessel stroke (SVS). We assessed whether circulating tHcy and B vitamin levels are selectively associated with SVS, but not other stroke subtypes, using Mendelian randomization.MethodsWe used summary statistics data for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with tHcy (n = 18), folate (n = 3), vitamin B-6 (n = 1), and vitamin B-12 (n = 14) levels, and the corresponding data for stroke from the MEGASTROKE consortium (n = 16,952 subtyped ischemic stroke cases and 404,630 noncases).ResultsGenetically predicted tHcy was associated with SVS, with an odds ratio of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.58; p = 6.7 x 10(-4)) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in genetically predicted tHcy levels, but was not associated with large artery or cardioembolic stroke. The association was mainly driven by SNPs at or near the MTHFR and MUT genes. The odds ratios of SVS per 1 SD increase in genetically predicted folate and vitamin B-6 levels were 0.49 (95% CI, 0.34-0.71; p = 1.3 x 10(-4)) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.52-0.94; p = 0.02), respectively. Genetically higher vitamin B-12 levels were not associated with any stroke subtype.Interpretation These findings suggest that any effect of homocysteine-lowering treatment in preventing stroke will be confined to the SVS subtype. Whether genetic variants at or near the MTHFR and MUT genes influence SVS risk through pathways other than homocysteine levels and downstream effects require further investigation. Ann Neurol 2019;85:495-501
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