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Sökning: WFRF:(Marten A) > (2020-2022)

  • Resultat 21-28 av 28
  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Ludwigs, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Poor inter-observer agreement in anatomical classifications of infrapopliteal arterial disease due to mandatory selection of only one target artery
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Acta Radiologica. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 0284-1851 .- 1600-0455.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Established anatomical classifications of infrapopliteal arterial lesion severity are based on assessment of only one target artery, not including all infrapopliteal arteries although multivessel revascularization is common. Purpose To investigate the reproducibility of one of these classifications and a new aggregated score. Material and Methods A total of 68 patients undergoing endovascular infrapopliteal revascularization at Sahlgrenska University Hospital during 2008-2016 were included. Preoperative magnetic resonance angiographies (MRA) and digital subtraction angiographies (DSA) were evaluated by three blinded observers in random order, using the infrapopliteal TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) II classification. An aggregated score, the Infrapopliteal Total Atherosclerotic Burden (I-TAB) score, including all infrapopliteal arteries, was constructed and used for comparison. Results Inter-observer agreement on lesion severity for each evaluated artery was good; Krippendorffs alpha for MRA 0.64-0.79 and DSA 0.66-0.84. Inter-observer agreement on TASC II grade, based on the selected target artery as stipulated, was poor; Krippendorffs alpha 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.05 to 0.30) for MRA and 0.48 (95% CI=0.33-0.61) for DSA. Inter-observer agreement for the new I-TAB score was good; Krippendorffs alpha 0.76 (95% CI=0.70-0.81) for MRA and 0.79 (95% CI=0.74-0.84) for DSA. Conclusion Reproducible assessment of infrapopliteal lesion severity can be achieved for separate arteries with both MRA and DSA using the TASC II definitions. However, poor inter-observer agreement in selecting the target artery results in low reproducibility of the overall infrapopliteal TASC II grade. An aggregated score, such as I-TAB, results in less variability and may provide a more robust evaluation tool of atherosclerotic disease severity.
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22.
  • Nano, Rita, et al. (författare)
  • Heterogeneity of Human Pancreatic Islet Isolation Around Europe : Results of a Survey Study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Transplantation. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0041-1337 .- 1534-6080. ; 104:1, s. 190-196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Europe is currently the most active region in the field of pancreatic islet transplantation, and many of the leading groups are actually achieving similar good outcomes. Further collaborative advances in the field require the standardization of islet cell product isolation processes, and this work aimed to identify differences in the human pancreatic islet isolation processes within European countries.Methods: A web-based questionnaire about critical steps, including donor selection, pancreas processing, pancreas perfusion and digestion, islet counting and culture, islet quality evaluation, microbiological evaluation, and release criteria of the product, was completed by isolation facilities participating at the Ninth International European Pancreas and Islet Transplant Association (EPITA) Workshop on Islet-Beta Cell Replacement in Milan.Results: Eleven islet isolation facilities completed the questionnaire. The facilities reported 445 and 53 islet isolations per year over the last 3 years from deceased organ donors and pancreatectomized patients, respectively. This activity resulted in 120 and 40 infusions per year in allograft and autograft recipients, respectively. Differences among facilities emerged in donor selection (age, cold ischemia time, intensive care unit length, amylase concentration), pancreas procurement, isolation procedures (brand and concentration of collagenase, additive, maximum acceptable digestion time), quality evaluation, and release criteria for transplantation (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion tests, islet numbers, and purity). Moreover, even when a high concordance about the relevance of one parameter was evident, thresholds for the acceptance were different among facilities.Conclusions: The result highlighted the presence of a heterogeneity in the islet cell product process and product release criteria.
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23.
  • Polasky, Stephen, et al. (författare)
  • Corridors of Clarity : Four Principles to Overcome Uncertainty Paralysis in the Anthropocene
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BioScience. - 0006-3568 .- 1525-3244. ; 70:12, s. 1139-1144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global environmental change challenges humanity because of its broad scale, long-lasting, and potentially irreversible consequences. Key to an effective response is to use an appropriate scientific lens to peer through the mist of uncertainty that threatens timely and appropriate decisions surrounding these complex issues. Identifying such corridors of clarity could help understanding critical phenomena or causal pathways sufficiently well to justify taking policy action. To this end, we suggest four principles: Follow the strongest and most direct path between policy decisions on outcomes, focus on finding sufficient evidence for policy purpose, prioritize no-regrets policies by avoiding options with controversial, uncertain, or immeasurable benefits, aim for getting the big picture roughly right rather than focusing on details.
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24.
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25.
  • Sommer, Natascha, et al. (författare)
  • Bypassing mitochondrial complex III using alternative oxidase inhibits acute pulmonary oxygen sensing
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 2375-2548. ; 6:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mitochondria play an important role in sensing both acute and chronic hypoxia in the pulmonary vasculature, but their primary oxygen-sensing mechanism and contribution to stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) remains elusive. Alteration of the mitochondrial electron flux and increased superoxide release from complex III has been proposed as an essential trigger for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We used mice expressing a tunicate alternative oxidase, AOX, which maintains electron flux when respiratory complexes III and/or IV are inhibited. Respiratory restoration by AOX prevented acute HPV and hypoxic responses of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), acute hypoxia-induced redox changes of NADH and cytochrome c, and superoxide production. In contrast, AOX did not affect the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and HIF-1α stabilization. These results indicate that distal inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in PASMC is an essential initial step for acute but not chronic oxygen sensing.
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26.
  • Stepien, Magdalena, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic alterations in circulating bile acid profiles in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 150:8, s. 1255-1268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bile acids (BAs) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may modulate BA metabolism increasing concentration of carcinogenic BAs. Observations from prospective cohorts are sparse. We conducted a study (233 HCC case-control pairs) nested within a large observational prospective cohort with blood samples taken at recruitment when healthy with follow-up over time for later cancer development. A targeted metabolomics method was used to quantify 17 BAs (primary/secondary/tertiary; conjugated/unconjugated) in prediagnostic plasma. Odd ratios (OR) for HCC risk associations were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Positive HCC risk associations were observed for the molar sum of all BAs (ORdoubling = 2.30, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.76-3.00), and choline- and taurine-conjugated BAs. Relative concentrations of BAs showed positive HCC risk associations for glycoholic acid and most taurine-conjugated BAs. We observe an association between increased HCC risk and higher levels of major circulating BAs, from several years prior to tumor diagnosis and after multivariable adjustment for confounders and liver functionality. Increase in BA concentration is accompanied by a shift in BA profile toward higher proportions of taurine-conjugated BAs, indicating early alterations of BA metabolism with HCC development. Future studies are needed to assess BA profiles for improved stratification of patients at high HCC risk and to determine whether supplementation with certain BAs may ameliorate liver dysfunction.
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27.
  • Uusitalo, Mikko A., et al. (författare)
  • 6G Vision, Value, Use Cases and Technologies from European 6G Flagship Project Hexa-X
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - 2169-3536. ; 9, s. 160004-160020
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While 5G is being deployed and the economy and society begin to reap the associated benefits, the research and development community starts to focus on the next, 6th Generation (6G) of wireless communications. Although there are papers available in the literature on visions, requirements and technical enablers for 6G from various academic perspectives, there is a lack of joint industry and academic work towards 6G. In this paper a consolidated view on vision, values, use cases and key enabling technologies from leading industry stakeholders and academia is presented. The authors represent the mobile communications ecosystem with competences spanning hardware, link layer and networking aspects, as well as standardization and regulation. The second contribution of the paper is revisiting and analyzing the key concurrent initiatives on 6G. A third contribution of the paper is the identification and justification of six key 6G research challenges: (i) “connecting”, in the sense of empowering, exploiting and governing, intelligence; (ii) realizing a network of networks, i.e., leveraging on existing networks and investments, while reinventing roles and protocols where needed; (iii) delivering extreme experiences, when/where needed; (iv) (environmental, economic, social) sustainability to address the major challenges of current societies; (v) trustworthiness as an ingrained fundamental design principle; (vi) supporting cost-effective global service coverage. A fourth contribution is a comprehensive specification of a concrete first-set of industry and academia jointly defined use cases for 6G, e.g., massive twinning, cooperative robots, immersive telepresence, and others. Finally, the anticipated evolutions in the radio, network and management/orchestration domains are discussed.
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28.
  • Uusitalo, Mikko A., et al. (författare)
  • Hexa-X: The european 6G flagship project
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: 2021 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications and 6G Summit, EuCNC/6G Summit 2021. ; , s. 580-585
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hexa-X will pave the way to the next generation of wireless networks (Hexa) by explorative research (X). The Hexa-X vision is to connect human, physical, and digital worlds with a fabric of sixth generation (6G) key enablers. The vision is driven by the ambition to contribute to objectives of growth, global sustainability, trustworthiness, and digital inclusion. Key 6G value indicators and use cases are defined against the background of technology push, society and industry pull as well as objectives of technology sovereignty. Key areas of research have been formulated accordingly to include connecting intelligence, network of networks, sustainability, global service coverage, extreme experience, and trustworthiness. Critical technology enablers for 6G are developed in the project including, sub-THz transceiver technologies, accurate stand-alone positioning and radio-based imaging, improved radio performance, artificial intelligence (AI) / machine learning (ML) inspired radio access network (RAN) technologies, future network architectures and special purpose solutions including future ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC) schemes. Besides technology enablers, early trials will be carried out to help assess viability and performance aspects of the key technology enablers. The 6G Hexa-X project is integral part of European and global research effort to help define the best possible next generation of networks.
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  • Resultat 21-28 av 28
  • Föregående 12[3]

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