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Sökning: WFRF:(Marten A)

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101.
  • Selig, Malte, 1988, et al. (författare)
  • Dark and bright exciton formation, thermalization, and photoluminescence in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: 2D Materials. - 2053-1583. ; 5:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The remarkably strong Coulomb interaction in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) results in an extraordinarily rich many-particle physics including the formation of tightly bound excitons. Besides optically accessible bright excitonic states, these materials also exhibit a variety of dark excitons. Since they can even lie below the bright states, they have a strong influence on the exciton dynamics, lifetimes, and photoluminescence. While very recently, the presence of dark excitonic states has been experimentally demonstrated, the origin of these states, their formation, and dynamics have not been revealed yet. Here, we present a microscopic study shedding light on time- and energy-resolved formation and thermalization of bright and dark intra- and intervalley excitons as well as their impact on the photoluminescence in different TMD materials. We demonstrate that intervalley dark excitons, so far widely overlooked in current literature, play a crucial role in tungsten-based TMDs giving rise to an enhanced photoluminescence and reduced exciton lifetimes at elevated temperatures.
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102.
  • Sommer, Natascha, et al. (författare)
  • Bypassing mitochondrial complex III using alternative oxidase inhibits acute pulmonary oxygen sensing
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science Advances. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 2375-2548. ; 6:16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mitochondria play an important role in sensing both acute and chronic hypoxia in the pulmonary vasculature, but their primary oxygen-sensing mechanism and contribution to stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) remains elusive. Alteration of the mitochondrial electron flux and increased superoxide release from complex III has been proposed as an essential trigger for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We used mice expressing a tunicate alternative oxidase, AOX, which maintains electron flux when respiratory complexes III and/or IV are inhibited. Respiratory restoration by AOX prevented acute HPV and hypoxic responses of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), acute hypoxia-induced redox changes of NADH and cytochrome c, and superoxide production. In contrast, AOX did not affect the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and HIF-1α stabilization. These results indicate that distal inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in PASMC is an essential initial step for acute but not chronic oxygen sensing.
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103.
  • Stepien, Magdalena, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic alterations in circulating bile acid profiles in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley & Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 150:8, s. 1255-1268
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bile acids (BAs) play different roles in cancer development. Some are carcinogenic and BA signaling is also involved in various metabolic, inflammatory and immune-related processes. The liver is the primary site of BA synthesis. Liver dysfunction and microbiome compositional changes, such as during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, may modulate BA metabolism increasing concentration of carcinogenic BAs. Observations from prospective cohorts are sparse. We conducted a study (233 HCC case-control pairs) nested within a large observational prospective cohort with blood samples taken at recruitment when healthy with follow-up over time for later cancer development. A targeted metabolomics method was used to quantify 17 BAs (primary/secondary/tertiary; conjugated/unconjugated) in prediagnostic plasma. Odd ratios (OR) for HCC risk associations were calculated by multivariable conditional logistic regression models. Positive HCC risk associations were observed for the molar sum of all BAs (ORdoubling = 2.30, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.76-3.00), and choline- and taurine-conjugated BAs. Relative concentrations of BAs showed positive HCC risk associations for glycoholic acid and most taurine-conjugated BAs. We observe an association between increased HCC risk and higher levels of major circulating BAs, from several years prior to tumor diagnosis and after multivariable adjustment for confounders and liver functionality. Increase in BA concentration is accompanied by a shift in BA profile toward higher proportions of taurine-conjugated BAs, indicating early alterations of BA metabolism with HCC development. Future studies are needed to assess BA profiles for improved stratification of patients at high HCC risk and to determine whether supplementation with certain BAs may ameliorate liver dysfunction.
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104.
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105.
  • Troell, Max, et al. (författare)
  • Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 111:37, s. 13257-13263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (similar to 4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.
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106.
  • Uusitalo, Mikko A., et al. (författare)
  • 6G Vision, Value, Use Cases and Technologies from European 6G Flagship Project Hexa-X
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. - 2169-3536. ; 9, s. 160004-160020
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While 5G is being deployed and the economy and society begin to reap the associated benefits, the research and development community starts to focus on the next, 6th Generation (6G) of wireless communications. Although there are papers available in the literature on visions, requirements and technical enablers for 6G from various academic perspectives, there is a lack of joint industry and academic work towards 6G. In this paper a consolidated view on vision, values, use cases and key enabling technologies from leading industry stakeholders and academia is presented. The authors represent the mobile communications ecosystem with competences spanning hardware, link layer and networking aspects, as well as standardization and regulation. The second contribution of the paper is revisiting and analyzing the key concurrent initiatives on 6G. A third contribution of the paper is the identification and justification of six key 6G research challenges: (i) “connecting”, in the sense of empowering, exploiting and governing, intelligence; (ii) realizing a network of networks, i.e., leveraging on existing networks and investments, while reinventing roles and protocols where needed; (iii) delivering extreme experiences, when/where needed; (iv) (environmental, economic, social) sustainability to address the major challenges of current societies; (v) trustworthiness as an ingrained fundamental design principle; (vi) supporting cost-effective global service coverage. A fourth contribution is a comprehensive specification of a concrete first-set of industry and academia jointly defined use cases for 6G, e.g., massive twinning, cooperative robots, immersive telepresence, and others. Finally, the anticipated evolutions in the radio, network and management/orchestration domains are discussed.
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107.
  • Uusitalo, Mikko A., et al. (författare)
  • Hexa-X: The european 6G flagship project
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: 2021 Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications and 6G Summit, EuCNC/6G Summit 2021. ; , s. 580-585
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hexa-X will pave the way to the next generation of wireless networks (Hexa) by explorative research (X). The Hexa-X vision is to connect human, physical, and digital worlds with a fabric of sixth generation (6G) key enablers. The vision is driven by the ambition to contribute to objectives of growth, global sustainability, trustworthiness, and digital inclusion. Key 6G value indicators and use cases are defined against the background of technology push, society and industry pull as well as objectives of technology sovereignty. Key areas of research have been formulated accordingly to include connecting intelligence, network of networks, sustainability, global service coverage, extreme experience, and trustworthiness. Critical technology enablers for 6G are developed in the project including, sub-THz transceiver technologies, accurate stand-alone positioning and radio-based imaging, improved radio performance, artificial intelligence (AI) / machine learning (ML) inspired radio access network (RAN) technologies, future network architectures and special purpose solutions including future ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC) schemes. Besides technology enablers, early trials will be carried out to help assess viability and performance aspects of the key technology enablers. The 6G Hexa-X project is integral part of European and global research effort to help define the best possible next generation of networks.
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108.
  • Veen, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi-Isotope (delta H-2, delta C-13, delta N-15) Assignment Approach
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:5, s. e98075-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different sub-Saharan regions have distinct migratory routes on the eastern and western sides of the Sahara desert, respectively. In an earlier paper, we showed that hybrids of the two species did not incur reduced winter survival, which would be expected if their migration strategy had been a mix of the parent species' strategies potentially resulting in an intermediate route crossing the Sahara desert to different wintering grounds. Previously, we compared isotope ratios and found no significant difference in stable-nitrogen isotope ratios (delta N-15) in wintergrown feathers between the parental species and hybrids, but stable-carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) in hybrids significantly clustered only with those of pied flycatchers. We followed up on these findings and additionally analyzed the same feathers for stable-hydrogen isotope ratios (delta H-2) and conducted spatially explicit multi-isotope assignment analyses. The assignment results overlapped with presumed wintering ranges of the two species, highlighting the efficacy of the method. In contrast to earlier findings, hybrids clustered with both parental species, though most strongly with pied flycatcher.
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