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  • Roura-Pascual, Núria, et al. (författare)
  • Alternative futures for global biological invasions
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Sustainability Science. - 1862-4065 .- 1862-4057. ; 16:5, s. 1637-1650
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Scenario analysis has emerged as a key tool to analyze complex and uncertain future socio-ecological developments. However, currently existing global scenarios (narratives of how the world may develop) have neglected biological invasions, a major threat to biodiversity and the economy. Here, we use a novel participatory process to develop a diverse set of global biological invasion scenarios spanning a wide range of plausible global futures through to 2050. We adapted the widely used two axes scenario analysis approach to develop four families of four scenarios each, resulting in 16 scenarios that were later clustered into four contrasting sets of futures. Our analysis highlights that socioeconomic developments and technological innovation have the potential to shape biological invasions, in addition to well-known drivers, such as climate and human land use change and global trade. Our scenarios partially align with the shared socioeconomic pathways created by the climate change research community. Several factors that drive differences in biological invasions were underrepresented in the shared socioeconomic pathways; in particular, the implementation of biosecurity policies. We argue that including factors related to public environmental awareness and technological and trade development in global scenarios and models is essential to adequately consider biological invasions in global environmental assessments and thereby obtain a more integrative picture of future social-ecological developments.
  • Voight, Benjamin F., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 380:9841, s. 572-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the hypothesis that the association of a plasma biomarker with disease is causal. Methods We performed two mendelian randomisation analyses. First, we used as an instrument a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the endothelial lipase gene (LIPG Asn396Ser) and tested this SNP in 20 studies (20 913 myocardial infarction cases, 95 407 controls). Second, we used as an instrument a genetic score consisting of 14 common SNPs that exclusively associate with HDL cholesterol and tested this score in up to 12 482 cases of myocardial infarction and 41 331 controls. As a positive control, we also tested a genetic score of 13 common SNPs exclusively associated with LDL cholesterol. Findings Carriers of the LIPG 396Ser allele (2.6% frequency) had higher HDL cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L higher, p=8x10(-13)) but similar levels of other lipid and non-lipid risk factors for myocardial infarction compared with non-carriers. This difference in HDL cholesterol is expected to decrease risk of myocardial infarction by 13% (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91). However, we noted that the 396Ser allele was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88-1.11, p=0.85). From observational epidemiology, an increase of 1 SD in HDL cholesterol was associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.58-0.66). However, a 1 SD increase in HDL cholesterol due to genetic score was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68-1.26, p=0.63). For LDL cholesterol, the estimate from observational epidemiology (a 1 SD increase in LDL cholesterol associated with OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.45-1.63) was concordant with that from genetic score (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.69, p=2x10(-10)). Interpretation Some genetic mechanisms that raise plasma HDL cholesterol do not seem to lower risk of myocardial infarction. These data challenge the concept that raising of plasma HDL cholesterol will uniformly translate into reductions in risk of myocardial infarction.
  • Abrikosov, Igor, et al. (författare)
  • Magnetism in systems with reduced dimensionality and chemical disorder : the local environment effects
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials. - : Elsevier. - 0304-8853 .- 1873-4766. ; 300:1, s. 211-215
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We study influence of the local chemical environment, the so-called local environment effects, on the electronic structure and properties of magnetic systems with reduced dimensionality and chemical disorder, and show that they play a crucial role in a vicinity of magnetic instability. As a model, we consider Fe–Ni Invar. We present results obtained from ab initio calculations of the electronic structure, magnetic moments, and exchange interactions in random fcc Fe–Ni alloy, for a single monolayer alloy film on a Cu (0 0 1) substrate as well as in the bulk. We analyze the difference between the film and the bulk magnetization, which is found to be most pronounced for dilute alloys. We also analyze a sensitivity of the individual magnetic moments and effective exchange parameters to the local chemical environment of the atoms.
  • Al-Furoukh, Natalie, et al. (författare)
  • NOA1, a novel ClpXP substrate, takes an unexpected nuclear detour prior to mitochondrial import.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 9:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mitochondrial matrix GTPase NOA1 is a nuclear encoded protein, essential for mitochondrial protein synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production. Here, we demonstrate that newly translated NOA1 protein is imported into the nucleus, where it localizes to the nucleolus and interacts with UBF1 before nuclear export and import into mitochondria. Mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) prevented both nuclear and mitochondrial import while deletion of the N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) or the C-terminal RNA binding domain of NOA1 impaired mitochondrial import. Absence of the MTS resulted in accumulation of NOA1 in the nucleus and increased caspase-dependent apoptosis. We also found that export of NOA1 from the nucleus requires a leptomycin-B sensitive, Crm1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). Finally, we show that NOA1 is a new substrate of the mitochondrial matrix protease complex ClpXP. Our results uncovered an unexpected, mandatory detour of NOA1 through the nucleolus before uptake into mitochondria. We propose that nucleo-mitochondrial translocation of proteins is more widespread than previously anticipated providing additional means to control protein bioavailability as well as cellular communication between both compartments.
  • Alling, Björn, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of thermodynamic properties of cubic Cr 1-x Al x N and Ti 1-x Al x N from first-principles calculations
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics. - 0021-8979 .- 1089-7550. ; 102:044314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to investigate the stability of the cubic phase of Cr1−xAlxN at high AlN content, first principles calculations of magnetic properties, lattice parameters, electronic structure, and mixing enthalpies of the system were performed. The mixing enthalpy was calculated on a fine concentration mesh to make possible the accurate determination of its second concentration derivative. The results are compared to calculations performed for the related compound Ti1−xAlxN and with experiments. The mixing enthalpy is discussed in the context of isostructural spinodal decomposition. It is shown that the magnetism is the key to understand the difference between the Cr- and Ti-containing systems. Cr1−xAlxN turns out to be more stable against spinodal decomposition than Ti1−xAlxN, especially for AlN-rich samples which are of interest in cutting tools applications.
  • Barrett, Scott, et al. (författare)
  • Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the Anthropocene
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 117:12, s. 6300-6307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not egoistic but socially embedded; that is, each household's decisions are influenced by the decisions made by others. In a famous paper, Garrett Hardin [G. Hardin, Science 162, 1243-1248 (1968)] drew attention to overpopulation and concluded that the solution lay in people abandoning the freedom to breed. That human attitudes and practices are socially embedded suggests that it is possible for people to reduce their fertility rates and consumption demands without experiencing a loss in wellbeing. We focus on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and consumption in the rich world and argue that bottom-up social mechanisms rather than top-down government interventions are better placed to bring about those ecologically desirable changes.
  • Bartholomay, S., et al. (författare)
  • Cross-talk compensation for blade root flap-and edgewise moments on an experimental research wind turbine and comparison to numerical results
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo. - : ASME Press. - 9780791851180
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the current paper a method to correct cross-talk effects for strain-gauge measurements is presented. Themethod is demonstrated on an experimental horizontal axiswind turbine. The procedure takes cross-moments (flapwise on edgewise moments and vice versa) as well as axialacceleration into account. The results from the experimental setup are compared to numerical URANS calculationsand the medium-fidelity code Qblade for a baseline caseand two yawed inflow situations.
  • Carlsson, Michael C, et al. (författare)
  • Different fractions of human serum glycoproteins bind galectin-1 or galectin-8, and their ratio may provide a refined biomarker for pathophysiological conditions in cancer and inflammatory disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. - : Elsevier. - 0304-4165 .- 1872-8006. ; 1820:9, s. 1366-1372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Changes in glycosylation of serum proteins are common, and various glycoforms are being explored as biomarkers in cancer and inflammation. We recently showed that glycoforms detected by endogenous galectins not only provide potential biomarkers, but also have different functions when they encounter galectins in tissue cells. Now we have explored the use of a combination of two galectins with different specificities, to further increase biomarker sensitivity and specificity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Sera from 14 women with metastatic breast cancer, 12 healthy controls, 14 patients with IgA-nephritis (IgAN), and 12 patients with other glomerulonephritis were fractionated by affinity chromatography on immobilized human galectin-1 or galectin-8N, and the protein amounts of the bound and unbound fractions for each galectin were determined. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Each galectin bound largely different fractions of the serum glycoproteins, including different glycoforms of haptoglobin. In the cancer sera, the level of galectin-1 bound glycoproteins was higher and galectin-8N bound glycoproteins lower compared to the other patients groups, whereas in IgAN sera the level of galectin-8N bound glycoproteins were higher. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: The ratio of galectin-1 bound/galectin-8N bound glycoproteins showed high discriminatory power between cancer patients and healthy, with AUC of 0.98 in ROC analysis, and thus provides an interesting novel cancer biomarker candidate. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanGeneral significance: The galectin-binding ability of a glycoprotein is not only a promising biomarker candidate but may also have a specific function when the glycoprotein encounters the galectin in tissue cells, and thus be related to the pathophysiological state of the patient. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Glycoproteomics.
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