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71.
  • Barrett, Scott, et al. (författare)
  • Social dimensions of fertility behavior and consumption patterns in the Anthropocene
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 117:12, s. 6300-6307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We consider two aspects of the human enterprise that profoundly affect the global environment: population and consumption. We show that fertility and consumption behavior harbor a class of externalities that have not been much noted in the literature. Both are driven in part by attitudes and preferences that are not egoistic but socially embedded; that is, each household's decisions are influenced by the decisions made by others. In a famous paper, Garrett Hardin [G. Hardin, Science 162, 1243-1248 (1968)] drew attention to overpopulation and concluded that the solution lay in people abandoning the freedom to breed. That human attitudes and practices are socially embedded suggests that it is possible for people to reduce their fertility rates and consumption demands without experiencing a loss in wellbeing. We focus on fertility in sub-Saharan Africa and consumption in the rich world and argue that bottom-up social mechanisms rather than top-down government interventions are better placed to bring about those ecologically desirable changes.
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72.
  • Bartholomay, S., et al. (författare)
  • Cross-talk compensation for blade root flap-and edgewise moments on an experimental research wind turbine and comparison to numerical results
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo. - : ASME Press. - 9780791851180
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the current paper a method to correct cross-talk effects for strain-gauge measurements is presented. Themethod is demonstrated on an experimental horizontal axiswind turbine. The procedure takes cross-moments (flapwise on edgewise moments and vice versa) as well as axialacceleration into account. The results from the experimental setup are compared to numerical URANS calculationsand the medium-fidelity code Qblade for a baseline caseand two yawed inflow situations.
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73.
  • Carlsson, Michael C, et al. (författare)
  • Different fractions of human serum glycoproteins bind galectin-1 or galectin-8, and their ratio may provide a refined biomarker for pathophysiological conditions in cancer and inflammatory disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects. - : Elsevier. - 0304-4165 .- 1872-8006. ; 1820:9, s. 1366-1372
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Changes in glycosylation of serum proteins are common, and various glycoforms are being explored as biomarkers in cancer and inflammation. We recently showed that glycoforms detected by endogenous galectins not only provide potential biomarkers, but also have different functions when they encounter galectins in tissue cells. Now we have explored the use of a combination of two galectins with different specificities, to further increase biomarker sensitivity and specificity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Sera from 14 women with metastatic breast cancer, 12 healthy controls, 14 patients with IgA-nephritis (IgAN), and 12 patients with other glomerulonephritis were fractionated by affinity chromatography on immobilized human galectin-1 or galectin-8N, and the protein amounts of the bound and unbound fractions for each galectin were determined. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Each galectin bound largely different fractions of the serum glycoproteins, including different glycoforms of haptoglobin. In the cancer sera, the level of galectin-1 bound glycoproteins was higher and galectin-8N bound glycoproteins lower compared to the other patients groups, whereas in IgAN sera the level of galectin-8N bound glycoproteins were higher. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: The ratio of galectin-1 bound/galectin-8N bound glycoproteins showed high discriminatory power between cancer patients and healthy, with AUC of 0.98 in ROC analysis, and thus provides an interesting novel cancer biomarker candidate. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanGeneral significance: The galectin-binding ability of a glycoprotein is not only a promising biomarker candidate but may also have a specific function when the glycoprotein encounters the galectin in tissue cells, and thus be related to the pathophysiological state of the patient. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Glycoproteomics.
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74.
  • Carpenter, Stephen R., et al. (författare)
  • Allowing variance may enlarge the safe operating space for exploited ecosystems
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 112:46, s. 14384-14389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variable flows of food, water, or other ecosystem services complicate planning. Management strategies that decrease variability and increase predictability may therefore be preferred. However, actions to decrease variance over short timescales (2-4 y), when applied continuously, may lead to long-term ecosystem changes with adverse consequences. We investigated the effects of managing short-term variance in three well-understood models of ecosystem services: lake eutrophication, harvest of a wild population, and yield of domestic herbivores on a rangeland. In all cases, actions to decrease variance can increase the risk of crossing critical ecosystem thresholds, resulting in less desirable ecosystem states. Managing to decrease short-term variance creates ecosystem fragility by changing the boundaries of safe operating spaces, suppressing information needed for adaptive management, cancelling signals of declining resilience, and removing pressures that may build tolerance of stress. Thus, the management of variance interacts strongly and inseparably with the management of resilience. By allowing for variation, learning, and flexibility while observing change, managers can detect opportunities and problems as they develop while sustaining the capacity to deal with them.
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75.
  • Chapin III, F. Stuart, et al. (författare)
  • Earth stewardship : Shaping a sustainable future through interacting policy and norm shifts
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 51:9, s. 1907-1920
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transformation toward a sustainable future requires an earth stewardship approach to shift society from its current goal of increasing material wealth to a vision of sustaining built, natural, human, and social capital—equitably distributed across society, within and among nations. Widespread concern about earth’s current trajectory and support for actions that would foster more sustainable pathways suggests potential social tipping points in public demand for an earth stewardship vision. Here, we draw on empirical studies and theory to show that movement toward a stewardship vision can be facilitated by changes in either policy incentives or social norms. Our novel contribution is to point out that both norms and incentives must change and can do so interactively. This can be facilitated through leverage points and complementarities across policy areas, based on values, system design, and agency. Potential catalysts include novel democratic institutions and engagement of non-governmental actors, such as businesses, civic leaders, and social movements as agents for redistribution of power. Because no single intervention will transform the world, a key challenge is to align actions to be synergistic, persistent, and scalable.
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76.
  • Cremona, Fabio, et al. (författare)
  • Hybrid co-simulation : it's about time
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Software and Systems Modeling. - : Springer Nature. - 1619-1366 .- 1619-1374. ; 18:3, s. 1655-1679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Model-based design methodologies are commonly used in industry for the development of complex cyber-physical systems (CPSs). There are many different languages, tools, and formalisms for model-based design, each with its strengths and weaknesses. Instead of accepting some weaknesses of a particular tool, an alternative is to embrace heterogeneity, and to develop tool integration platforms and protocols to leverage the strengths from different environments. A fairly recent attempt in this direction is the functional mock-up interface (FMI) standard that includes support for co-simulation. Although this standard has reached acceptance in industry, it provides only limited support for simulating systems that mix continuous and discrete behavior, which are typical of CPS. This paper identifies the representation of time as a key problem, because the FMI representation does not support well the discrete events that typically occur at the cyber-physical boundary. We analyze alternatives for representing time in hybrid co-simulation and conclude that a superdense model of time using integers only solves many of these problems. We show how an execution engine can pick an adequate time resolution, and how disparities between time representations internal to co-simulated components and the resulting effects of time quantization can be managed. We propose a concrete extension to the FMI standard for supporting hybrid co-simulation that includes integer time, automatic choice of time resolution, and the use of absent signals. We explain how these extensions can be implemented modularly within the frameworks of existing simulation environments.
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77.
  • de Vries, Paul S., et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide association study identifies new loci for factor VII and implicates factor VII in ischemic stroke etiology
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 133:9, s. 967-977
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Factor VII (FVII) is an important component of the coagulation cascade. Few genetic loci regulating FVII activity and/or levels have been discovered to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 9 genome-wide association studies of plasma FVII levels (7 FVII activity and 2 FVII antigen) among 27 495 participants of European and African ancestry. Each study performed ancestry-specific association analyses. Inverse variance weighted meta-analysis was performed within each ancestry group and then combined for a trans-ancestry meta-analysis. Our primary analysis included the 7 studies that measured FVII activity, and a secondary analysis included all 9 studies. We provided functional genomic validation for newly identified significant loci by silencing candidate genes in a human liver cell line (HuH7) using small-interfering RNA and then measuring F7 messenger RNA and FVII protein expression. Lastly, we used meta-analysis results to perform Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of FVII activity on coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke (IS), and venous thromboembolism. We identified 2 novel (REEP3 and JAZF1-AS1) and 6 known loci associated with FVII activity, explaining 19.0% of the phenotypic variance. Adding FVII antigen data to the meta-analysis did not result in the discovery of further loci. Silencing REEP3 in HuH7 cells upregulated FVII, whereas silencing JAZF1 downregulated FVII. Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that FVII activity has a positive causal effect on the risk of IS. Variants at REEP3 and JAZF1 contribute to FVII activity by regulating F7 expression levels. FVII activity appears to contribute to the etiology of IS in the general population.
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78.
  • Eckhardt, Corien L., et al. (författare)
  • Factor VIII gene (F8) mutation and risk of inhibitor development in nonsevere hemophilia A
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 122:11, s. 1954-1962
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) toward factor VIII form a severe complication in nonsevere hemophilia A, profoundly aggravating the bleeding pattern. Identification of high-risk patients is hampered by lack of data that take exposure days to therapeutic factor VIII concentrates into account. In the INSIGHT study, we analyzed the association between F8 mutation and inhibitor development in patients with nonsevere hemophilia A (factor VIII 2-40 IU/dL). This analysis included 1112 nonsevere hemophilia A patients from 14 centers in Europe and Australia that had genotyped at least 70% of their patients. Inhibitor risk was calculated as Kaplan-Meier incidence with cumulative number of exposure days as the time variable. During 44 800 exposure days (median, 24 exposure days per patient; interquartile range [IQR], 7-90), 59 of the 1112 patients developed an inhibitor; cumulative incidence of 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0-6.6) after a median of 28 exposure days (IQR, 12-71). The inhibitor risk at 50 exposure days was 6.7% (95% CI, 4.5-8.9) and at 100 exposure days the risk further increased to 13.3% (95% CI, 9.6-17.0). Among a total of 214 different F8 missense mutations 19 were associated with inhibitor development. These results emphasize the importance of F8 genotyping in nonsevere hemophilia A.
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79.
  • Folke, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Our future in the Anthropocene biosphere
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ambio. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 50:4, s. 834-869
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed an interconnected and tightly coupled globalized world in rapid change. This article sets the scientific stage for understanding and responding to such change for global sustainability and resilient societies. We provide a systemic overview of the current situation where people and nature are dynamically intertwined and embedded in the biosphere, placing shocks and extreme events as part of this dynamic; humanity has become the major force in shaping the future of the Earth system as a whole; and the scale and pace of the human dimension have caused climate change, rapid loss of biodiversity, growing inequalities, and loss of resilience to deal with uncertainty and surprise. Taken together, human actions are challenging the biosphere foundation for a prosperous development of civilizations. The Anthropocene reality-of rising system-wide turbulence-calls for transformative change towards sustainable futures. Emerging technologies, social innovations, broader shifts in cultural repertoires, as well as a diverse portfolio of active stewardship of human actions in support of a resilient biosphere are highlighted as essential parts of such transformations.
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80.
  • Folke, Carl, et al. (författare)
  • Transnational corporations and the challenge of biosphere stewardship
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Ecology & Evolution. - 2397-334X. ; 3:10, s. 1396-1403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sustainability within planetary boundaries requires concerted action by individuals, governments, civil society and private actors. For the private sector, there is concern that the power exercised by transnational corporations generates, and is even central to, global environmental change. Here, we ask under which conditions transnational corporations could either hinder or promote a global shift towards sustainability. We show that a handful of transnational corporations have become a major force shaping the global intertwined system of people and planet. Transnational corporations in agriculture, forestry, seafood, cement, minerals and fossil energy cause environmental impacts and possess the ability to influence critical functions of the biosphere. We review evidence of current practices and identify six observed features of change towards 'corporate biosphere stewardship', with significant potential for upscaling. Actions by transnational corporations, if combined with effective public policies and improved governmental regulations, could substantially accelerate sustainability efforts.
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