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Sökning: WFRF:(McIntosh Andrew M.)

  • Resultat 21-25 av 25
  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Schwarz, Emanuel, et al. (författare)
  • Reproducible grey matter patterns index a multivariate, global alteration of brain structure in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - : Springer Nature. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. We found reproducible changes of structural parameters in schizophrenia that yielded a classification accuracy of up to 76% and provided discrimination from ADHD, through it lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. The observed changes largely indexed distributed grey matter alterations that could be represented through a combination of several global brain-structural parameters. This multi-site machine learning study identified a brain-structural signature that could reproducibly differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls, but lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. While this currently limits the clinical utility of the identified signature, the present study highlights that the underlying alterations index substantial global grey matter changes in psychotic disorders, reflecting the biological similarity of these conditions, and provide a roadmap for future exploration of brain structural alterations in psychiatric patients.
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22.
  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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24.
  • Lunetta, Kathryn L., et al. (författare)
  • Rare coding variants and X-linked loci associated with age at menarche
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • More than 100 loci have been identified for age at menarche by genome-wide association studies; however, collectively these explain only similar to 3% of the trait variance. Here we test two overlooked sources of variation in 192,974 European ancestry women: low-frequency proteincoding variants and X-chromosome variants. Five missense/nonsense variants (in ALMS1/LAMB2/TNRC6A/TACR3/PRKAG1) are associated with age at menarche (minor allele frequencies 0.08-4.6%; effect sizes 0.08-1.25 years per allele; P<5 x 10(-8)). In addition, we identify common X-chromosome loci at IGSF1 (rs762080, P = 9.4 x 10(-13)) and FAAH2 (rs5914101, P = 4.9 x 10(-10)). Highlighted genes implicate cellular energy homeostasis, post-transcriptional gene silencing and fatty-acid amide signalling. A frequently reported mutation in TACR3 for idiopathic hypogonatrophic hypogonadism (p.W275X) is associated with 1.25-year-later menarche (P = 2.8 x 10(-11)), illustrating the utility of population studies to estimate the penetrance of reportedly pathogenic mutations. Collectively, these novel variants explain similar to 0.5% variance, indicating that these overlooked sources of variation do not substantially explain the 'missing heritability' of this complex trait.
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25.
  • Johnstone, Mandy, et al. (författare)
  • Copy number variations in DISC1 and DISC1-interacting partners in major mental illness
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Molecular neuropsychiatry. - 2296-9209. ; 1:3, s. 175-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Robust statistical, genetic and functional evidence supports a role for DISC1 in the aetiology of major mental illness. Furthermore, many of its protein-binding partners show evidence for involvement in the pathophysiology of a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Copy number variants (CNVs) are suspected to play an important causal role in these disorders. In this study, CNV analysis of DISC1 and its binding partners PAFAH1B1, NDE1, NDEL1, FEZ1, MAP1A, CIT and PDE4B in Scottish and Northern Swedish population-based samples was carried out using multiplex amplicon quantification. Here, we report the finding of rare CNVs in DISC1, NDE1 (together with adjacent genes within the 16p13.11 duplication), NDEL1 (including the overlapping MYH10 gene) and CIT. Our findings provide further evidence for involvement of DISC1 and its interaction partners in neuropsychiatric disorders and also for a role of structural variants in the aetiology of these devastating diseases.
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  • Resultat 21-25 av 25
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