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Sökning: WFRF:(Neri R.)

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  • Harreither, Wolfgang, et al. (författare)
  • Cysteine residues reduce the severity of dopamine electrochemical fouling
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Electrochimica Acta. - 0013-4686. ; 210, s. 622-629
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fouling of neurotransmitter during electrochemical detection can dramatically jeopardize the viability of the sensor. Several recent developments in electrode fabrication and design have helped mitigating this issue. For instance, carbon nanotube fiber (CNTF) electrodes were found to be more resistant to fouling than the traditional carbon fiber (CF) electrodes. Here, we investigate the fouling resistance of these two materials in the presence of albumin. Interestingly, our data shows that the presence of albumin reduces the impact of dopamine (DA) fouling in a dose-dependent manner. A protective effect from DA fouling was also observed for other thiol containing substances, thus hinting that the sulfur competes with the amine moiety for the nucleophilic binding to the oxidized catechol, a critical step initiating DA fouling, and therefore reduces the rate of DA polymerization on the electrode surface. Overall, this study furthers our understanding of the mechanisms controlling DA detection in situ, and suggests using solutions of albumin as a background for calibrating sensors.
  • Krips, M., et al. (författare)
  • ACA CI observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 592:L3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Carbon monoxide (CO) is widely used as a tracer of the molecular gas in almost all types of environments. However, several shortcomings of CO complicate usaging it as H-2 tracer, such as its optical depth effects, the dependence of its abundance on metallicity, or its susceptibility to dissociation in highly irradiated regions. Neutral carbon emission has been proposed to overcome some of these shortcomings and hence to help revealing the limits of CO as a measure of the molecular gas. Aims. We aim to study the general characteristics of the spatially and spectrally resolved carbon line emission in a variety of extragalactic sources and evaluate its potential as complementary H-2 tracer to CO. Methods. We used the Atacama Compact Array to map the [CI](P-3(1)-P-3(0)) line emission in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 at unprecedented angular resolution (similar to 3 ''). This is the first well-resolved interferometric [CI] map of an extragalactic source. Results. We have detected the [CI] line emission at high significance levels along the central disk of NGC 253 and its edges where expanding shells have previously been found in CO. Globally, the distribution of the [CI] line emission strongly resembles that of CO, confirming the results of previous Galactic surveys that [CI] traces the same molecular gas as CO. However, we also identify a significant increase of [CI] line emission with respect to CO in (some of) the outflow or shocked regions of NGC 253, namely the bipolar outflow emerging from the nucleus. A first-order estimate of the [CI] column densities indicates abundances of [CI] that are very similar to the abundance of CO in NGC 253. Interestingly, we find that the [CI] line is marginally optically thick within the disk. Conclusions. The enhancement of the [CI]/CO line ratios (similar to 0.4-0.6) with respect to Galactic values (
  • Wang, R., et al. (författare)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 1538-4357 .- 0004-637X. ; 773:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the [C Pi] 158 mu m fine structure line and dust continuum emission from the host galaxies of five redshift 6 quasars. We also report complementary observations of 250 GHz dust continuum and CO (6-5) line emission from the z = 6.00 quasar SDSS J231038.88+185519.7 using the IRAM facilities. The ALMA observations were carried out in the extended array at 0.'' 7 resolution. We have detected the line and dust continuum in all five objects. The derived [C Pi] line luminosities are 1.6 x 10(9) to 8.7 x 10(9) L-circle dot and the [C Pi]-to-FIR luminosity ratios are 2.9-5.1 x 10(-4), which is comparable to the values found in other high-redshift quasar-starburst systems and local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies. The sources are marginally resolved and the intrinsic source sizes (major axis FWHM) are constrained to be 0.'' 3-0.'' 6 (i.e., 1.7-3.5 kpc) for the [C Pi] line emission and 0.'' 2-0.'' 4 (i.e., 1.2-2.3 kpc) for the continuum. These measurements indicate that there is vigorous star formation over the central few kpc in the quasar host galaxies. The ALMA observations also constrain the dynamical properties of the star-forming gas in the nuclear region. The intensity-weighted velocity maps of three sources show clear velocity gradients. Such velocity gradients are consistent with a rotating, gravitationally bound gas component, although they are not uniquely interpreted as such. Under the simplifying assumption of rotation, the implied dynamical masses within the [C Pi]-emitting regions are of order 10(10)-10(11) M-circle dot. Given these estimates, the mass ratios between the supermassive black holes and the spheroidal bulge are an order of magnitude higher than the mean value found in local spheroidal galaxies, which is in agreement with results from previous CO observations of high redshift quasars.
  • Aalto, Susanne, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • Detection of HCN, HCO+, and HNC in the Mrk 231 molecular outflow. Dense molecular gas in the AGN wind
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 537, s. 44-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We obtained high-resolution (1.''55 × 1.''28) observations of HCN, HCO+, HNC 1-0 and HC3N 10-9 of the ultraluminous galaxy (ULIRG) Mrk 231 with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer.Results: We detect luminous emission from HCN, HCO+ and HNC 1-0 in the QSO ULIRG Mrk 231. All three lines show broad line wings - which are particularly prominent for HCN. Velocities are found to be similar ( ≈ ± 750 km s-1) to those found for CO 1-0. This is the first time bright HCN, HCO+ and HNC emission has been detected in a large-scale galactic outflow. We find that both the blue- and red-shifted line wings are spatially extended by at least 0.''75 (>700 pc) in a north-south direction. The line wings are brighter (relative to the line center intensity) in HCN than in CO 1-0 and line ratios suggest that the molecular outflow consists of dense (n > 104 cm-3) and clumpy gas with a high HCN abundance X(HCN) > 10-8. These properties are consistent with the molecular gas being compressed and fragmented by shocks in the outflow. Alternatively, HCN is instead pumped by mid-IR continuum, but we propose that this effect is not strong for the spatially extended outflowing gas. In addition, we find that the rotation of the main disk, in east-west direction, is also evident in the HCN, HCO+ and HNC line emission. An unexpectedly bright HC3N 10-9 line is detected inside the central 400 pc of Mrk 231. This HC3N emission may emerge from a shielded, dust-enshrouded region within the inner 40-50 pc where the gas is heated to high temperatures (200-300 K) by the AGN.
  • Aalto, Susanne, 1964, et al. (författare)
  • High resolution observations of HCN and HCO+J = 3–2 in the disk and outflow of Mrk 231 -- Detection of vibrationally excited HCN in the warped nucleus
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 574, s. 85-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. Our goal is to study molecular gas properties in nuclei and large scale outflows/winds from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and starburst galaxies.Methods. We obtained high resolution (0.̋25 to 0.̋90) observations of HCN and HCO+J = 3 → 2 of the ultraluminous QSO galaxy Mrk 231 with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI).Results. We find luminous HCN and HCO+J = 3 → 2 emission in the main disk and we detect compact (r ≲ 0''̣1 (90 pc)) vibrationally excited HCN J = 3 → 2ν2 = 1f emission centred on the nucleus. The velocity field of the vibrationally excited HCN is strongly inclined (position angle PA = 155°) compared to the east-west rotation of the main disk. The nuclear (r ≲ 0.̋1) molecular mass is estimated to 8 × 108 M⊙ with an average N(H2) of 1.2 × 1024 cm-2. Prominent, spatially extended (≳350 pc) line wings are found for HCN J = 3 → 2 with velocities up to ± 750 km s-1. Line ratios indicate that the emission is emerging in dense gas n = 104−5 × 105 cm-3 of elevated HCN abundance X(HCN) = 10-8−10-6. The highest X(HCN) also allows for the emission to originate in gas of more moderate density. We tentatively detect nuclear emission from the reactive ion HOC+ with HCO+/HOC+ = 10−20.Conclusions. The HCN ν2 = 1f line emission is consistent with the notion of a hot, dusty, warped inner disk of Mrk 231 where the ν2 = 1f line is excited by bright mid-IR 14 μm continuum. We estimate the vibrational temperature Tvib to 200−400 K. Based on relative source sizes we propose that 50% of the main HCN emission may have its excitation affected by the radiation field through IR pumping of the vibrational ground state. The HCN emission in the line wings, however, is more extended and thus likely not strongly affected by IR pumping. Our results reveal that dense clouds survive (and/or are formed) in the AGN outflow on scales of at least several hundred pc before evaporating or collapsing. The elevated HCN abundance in the outflow is consistent with warm chemistry possibly related to shocks and/or X-ray irradiated gas. An upper limit to the mass and momentum flux is 4 × 108 M⊙ and 12LAGN/c, respectively, and we discuss possible driving mechanisms for the dense outflow.
  • Beyder, Arthur, et al. (författare)
  • Loss-of-Function of the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Na(V)1.5 (Channelopathies) in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : Elsevier. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 146:7, s. 1659-1668
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: SCN5A encodes the a-subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na(V)1.5. Many patients with cardiac arrhythmias caused by mutations in SCN5A also have symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We investigated whether patients with IBS have SCN5A variants that affect the function of Na(V)1.5. METHODS: We performed genotype analysis of SCN5A in 584 persons with IBS and 1380 without IBS (controls). Mutant forms of SCN5A were expressed in human embryonic kidney-293 cells, and functions were assessed by voltage clamp analysis. A genome-wide association study was analyzed for an association signal for the SCN5A gene, and replicated in 1745 patients in 4 independent cohorts of IBS patients and controls. RESULTS: Missense mutations were found in SCN5A in 13 of 584 patients (2.2%, probands). Diarrhea-predominant IBS was the most prevalent form of IBS in the overall study population (25%). However, a greater percentage of individuals with SCN5A mutations had constipation-predominant IBS (31%) than diarrhea-predominant IBS (10%; P < .05). Electrophysiologic analysis showed that 10 of 13 detected mutations disrupted Na(V)1.5 function (9 loss-of-function and 1 gain-of-function function). The p. A997T-Na(V)1.5 had the greatest effect in reducing Na(V)1.5 function. Incubation of cells that expressed this variant with mexiletine restored their sodium current and administration of mexiletine to 1 carrier of this mutation (who had constipation-predominant IBS) normalized their bowel habits. In the genome-wide association study and 4 replicated studies, the SCN5A locus was strongly associated with IBS. CONCLUSIONS: About 2% of patients with IBS carry mutations in SCN5A. Most of these are loss-of-function mutations that disrupt Na(V)1.5 channel function. These findings provide a new pathogenic mechanism for IBS and possible treatment options.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • ALMA images the many faces of the NGC 1068 torus and its surroundings
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 632
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. We investigate the fueling and the feedback of nuclear activity in the nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy NGC 1068 by studying the distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the torus and its connections to the host galaxy disk. Methods.We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA ) to image the emission of a set of molecular gas tracers in the circumnuclear disk (CND) and the torus of the galaxy using the CO(2-1), CO(3-2), and HCO+(4-3) lines and their underlying continuum emission with high spatial resolutions (0:0300 0:0900 ' 26 pc). These transitions, which span a wide range of physical conditions of molecular gas (n(H2) 103107 cm3), are instrumental in revealing the density radial stratification and the complex kinematics of the gas in the torus and its surroundings. Results. The ALMA images resolve the CND as an asymmetric ringed disk of D ' 400 pc in size and '1:4 108 M in mass. The CND shows a marked deficit of molecular gas in its central '130 pc region. The inner edge of the ring is associated with the presence of edge-brightened arcs of NIR polarized emission, which are identified with the current working surface of the ionized wind of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). ALMA proves the existence of an elongated molecular disk/torus in NGC 1068 of Mgas torus ' 3 105 M, which extends over a large range of spatial scales D ' 1030 pc around the central engine. The new observations evidence the density radial stratification of the torus: the HCO+(4-3) torus, with a full size DHCO+(43) = 11 0:6 pc, is a factor of between two and three smaller than its CO(2-1) and CO(3-2) counterparts, which have full sizes of DCO(32) = 26 0:6 pc and DCO(21) = 28 0:6 pc, respectively. This result brings into light the many faces of the molecular torus. The torus is connected to the CND through a network of molecular gas streamers detected inside the CND ring. The kinematics of molecular gas show strong departures from circular motions in the torus, the gas streamers, and the CND ring. These velocity field distortions are interconnected and are part of a 3D outflow that reflects the eects of AGN feedback on the kinematics of molecular gas across a wide range of spatial scales around the central engine. In particular, we estimate through modeling that a significant fraction of the gas inside the torus ('0:40:6 Mgas torus) and a comparable amount of mass along the gas streamers are outflowing. However, the bulk of the mass, momentum, and energy of the molecular outflow of NGC 1068 is contained at larger radii in the CND region, where the AGN wind and the radio jet are currently pushing the gas assembled at the Inner Lindblad Resonance (ILR) ring of the nuclear stellar bar. Conclusions. In our favored scenario a wide-angle AGN wind launched from the accretion disk of NGC1068 is currently impacting a sizable fraction of the gas inside the torus. However, a large gas reservoir ('1:21:8 105 M), which lies close to the equatorial plane of the torus, remains unaected by the feedback of the AGN wind and can therefore continue fueling the AGN for at least '14 Myr. Nevertheless, AGN fueling currently seems thwarted on intermediate scales (15 pc r 50 pc).
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • ALMA imaging of C2H emission in the disk of NGC 1068
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 608, s. A56-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims. We study the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity on the chemistry of molecular gas in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing whether the abundances of key molecular species such as ethynyl (C2H), which is a classical tracer of photon dominated regions (PDR), change in the different environments of the disk of the galaxy. Methods. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the hyperfine multiplet of C2H(N = 1-0) and its underlying continuum emission in the central r similar or equal to 35" (2.5 kpc) region of the disk of NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution 1.0 x 0.7 (similar or equal to 50-70 pc). We used maps of the dust continuum emission obtained at 349 GHz by ALMA to derive the H-2 gas column densities and combined these with the C2H map at matched spatial resolution to estimate the fractional abundance of this species. We developed a set of time-dependent chemical models, which include shocks, gas-phase PDRs, and gas-grain chemical models to determine the origin of the C2H gas. Results. A sizeable fraction of the total C2H line emission is detected from the r similar or equal to 1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring, which is a region that concentrates the bulk of the recent massive star formation in the disk traced by the Pa alpha emission complexes imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, the brightest C2H emission originates from a r similar or equal to 200 pc off -centered circumnuclear disk (CND), where evidence of a molecular outflow has been previously found in other molecular tracers imaged by ALMA. We also detect significant emission that connects the CND with the outer disk in a region that probes the interface between the molecular disk and ionized gas outflow out to r similar or equal to 400 pc. We derived the fractional abundances of C2H (X(C2H)) assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions and a set of excitation temperatures (T-ex) constrained by the previous multiline CO studies of the galaxy. Our estimates range from X(C2H) similar or equal to a few 10(-8) in the SB ring up to X(C2H) similar or equal to a few 10(-7) in the outflow region. The PDR models that incorporate gas-grain chemistry are able to account for X(C2H) in the SB ring for moderately dense (n(H-2) >= 10(4) cm(-3)) and moderately UV-irradiated gas (UV-field = 10(4-5) cm(-3)). Conclusions. We find that the transient conditions required to fit the high values of X(C2H) in the outflow are likely due to UV or X-ray irradiated non-dissociative shocks associated with the highly turbulent interface between the outflow and molecular gas in NGC 1068. Although the inferred local timescales are short, the erosion of molecular clouds by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) wind and/or the jet likely resupplies the interface working surface continuously, making a nearly steady state persist in the disk of the galaxy.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution imaging of the molecular outflows in two mergers: IRAS 17208-0014 and NGC 1614
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Galaxy evolution scenarios predict that the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity (AGN) can drive the transformation of gas-rich spiral mergers into (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and, eventually, lead to the build-up of QSO/elliptical hosts. Aims. We study the role that star formation and AGN feedback have in launching and maintaining the molecular outflows in two starburst-dominated advanced mergers, NGC 1614 (DL = 66 Mpc) and IRAS 17208-0014 (DL = 181 Mpc), by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of their molecular gas reservoirs. Both galaxies present evidence of outflows in other phases of their ISM. Methods. We used the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI) to image the CO(10) and CO(21) line emissions in NGC 1614 and IRAS 17208-0014, respectively, with high spatial resolution (0: 0051: 002). The velocity fields of the gas were analyzed and modeled to find the evidence of molecular outflows in these sources and characterize the mass, momentum, and energy of these components. Results. While most (95%) of the CO emission stems from spatially resolved (23 kpc-diameter) rotating disks, we also detect in both mergers the emission from high-velocity line wings that extend up to -500-700 km s1, well beyond the estimated virial range associated with rotation and turbulence. The kinematic major axis of the line-wing emission is tilted by 90 in NGC 1614 and by 180 in IRAS 17208-0014 relative to the major axes of their respective rotating disks. These results can be explained by the existence of non-coplanar molecular outflows in both systems: the outflow axis is nearly perpendicular to the rotating disk in NGC 1614, but it is tilted relative to the angular momentum axis of the rotating disk in IRAS 17208-0014. Conclusions. In stark contrast to NGC 1614, where star formation alone can drive its molecular outflow, the mass, energy, and momentum budget requirements of the molecular outflow in IRAS 17208-0014 can be best accounted for by the existence of a so far undetected (hidden) AGN of LAGN71011 L The geometry of the molecular outflow in IRAS 17208-0014 suggests that the outflow is launched by a non-coplanar disk that may be associated with a buried AGN in the western nucleus.
  • Burillo, S. G., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular gas chemistry in AGN. II. High-resolution imaging of SiO emission in NGC 1068: shocks or XDR?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 519:Article Number: A2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. This paper is part of a multi-species survey of line emission from the molecular gas in the circum-nuclear disk (CND) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. Unlike in other active galaxies, the intensely star-forming regions in NGC 1068 and the CND can be resolved with current instrumentation. This makes this galaxy an optimal test-bed to probe the effects of AGN on the molecular medium at similar to 100 pc scales. Aims. Single-dish observations have provided evidence that the abundance of silicon monoxide (SiO) in the CND of NGC 1068 is enhanced by 3-4 orders of magnitude with respect to the values typically measured in quiescent molecular gas in the Galaxy. We aim at unveiling the mechanism(s) underlying the SiO enhancement. Methods. We have imaged the emission of the SiO(2-1) (86.8 GHz) and CN(2-1) (226.8 GHz) lines in NGC 1068 at similar to 150 pc and 60 pc spatial resolution with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI). We have also obtained complementary IRAM 30 m observations of HNCO and methanol (CH3OH) lines. These species are known as tracers of shocks in the Galaxy. Results. SiO is detected in a disk of similar to 400 pc size around the AGN. SiO abundances in the CND of similar to(1-5) x 10(-9) are about 1-2 orders of magnitude above those measured in the starburst ring. The overall abundance of CN in the CND is high: similar to(0.2-1) x 10(-7). The abundances of SiO and CN are enhanced at the extreme velocities of gas associated with non-circular motions close to the AGN (r
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