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  • Josefsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • APOE-epsilon 4 effects on longitudinal decline in olfactory and non-olfactory cognitive abilities in middle-aged and old adults
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characterizing aging-related decline trajectories in mental abilities, and relationships of the epsilon 4 allele of the Apolipoprotein gene, helps to identify individuals at high risk for dementia. However, longitudinal changes in olfactory and non-olfactory cognitive abilities have not been investigated in relation to the epsilon 4 allele. In the present study, participants from a large population-based study (657 middle-aged and 556 old) were tested over 10 years on their performance on an odor identification task and three non-olfactory cognitive tasks; MMSE, episodic memory, and semantic memory. Our key finding is that in middle-aged participants, odor identification declined twice as fast for epsilon 4/4 homozygotes, compared to non-carriers. However, in old participants, the epsilon 4/4 homozygotes showed an impaired odor identification ability, but they declined at a similar rate as the non-carriers. Furthermore, in old participants all assessments displayed aging-related declines, but exaggerated declines in epsilon 4-carriers were found only in MMSE and episodic memory assessments. In sum, we present evidence that odor identification ability starts to decline already in middle-aged, and that carriers of epsilon 4/4, who are at highest risk of developing dementia, decline twice as fast. Our results may have implications for use of odor identification assessment in detection of early-stage dementia.
  • Kilsgård, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Peptidylarginine deiminases present in the airways during tobacco smoking and inflammation can citrullinate the host defense peptide LL-37, resulting in altered activities.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. - : American Thoracic Society. - 1535-4989 .- 1044-1549. ; 46:2, s. 240-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacterial colonization of the lower respiratory tract is frequently seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and may cause exacerbations leading to disease progression. Antimicrobial peptides comprise an important part of innate lung immunity, and not least the cathelicidin human cationic antimicrobial protein-18/LL-37. Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) post-translationally modify proteins by converting cationic peptidylarginine residues to neutral peptidylcitrulline. An increased presence of PADI2 and citrullinated proteins was demonstrated in the lungs of smokers. In this study, preformed PADI4, stored in granulocytes and extracellularly in the lumina of bronchi, was found in lung tissue of individuals suffering from COPD. In vitro, recombinant human PADI2 and PADI4 both caused a time- and dose-dependent citrullination of LL-37. The citrullination resulted in impaired antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and nontypable Haemophilus influenzae, but less so against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using artificial lipid bilayers, we observed discrete differences when comparing the disrupting activity of native and citrullinated LL-37, suggesting that differences in cell wall composition are important during interactions with whole bacteria. Furthermore, citrullinated LL-37 showed higher chemotactic activity against mononuclear leukocytes than did native LL-37, but was less efficient at neutralizing lipolysaccharide, and also in converting apoptotic neutrophils into a state of secondary necrosis. In addition, citrullinated LL-37 was more prone to degradation by proteases, whereas the V8 endopetidase of S. aureus cleaved the modified peptide at additional sites, compared with native LL-37. Together, these findings demonstrate novel mechanisms whereby the inflammation-dependent deiminases PADI2 and PADI4 can alter the activites of antibacterial polypeptides, affecting the course of inflammatory disorders such as COPD.
  • Larsson, Göran, 1970, et al. (författare)
  • “By way of Introduction”
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Building Blocks of Religion. Critical Applications and Future Prospects / Edited by Göran Larsson, Jonas Svensson, Andreas Nordin. - Sheffield & Bristol : Equinox. - 9781781798669 ; , s. 1-4
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)
  • Larsson, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • By way of Introduction
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Building blocks of religion. - : Equinox Publishing. - 9781781798676 - 9781781798669 - 9781781798683 ; , s. 1-4
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This book introduces and summarises the Building Block Approach to Religious Studies that has been developed and proposed by professor Ann Taves (University of Santa Barbara) and associate professor Egil Asprem (Stockholm University). The book opens with a lengthy introduction by Taves and Asprem that describes the Building Block Approach, explains how and why they developed it, and what it can be used for in the study of religions. The introduction by Taves and Asprem is followed by seven responses, comments and critiques that identify pros and cons of the approach suggested by Taves and Asprem. The book ends with a response by Taves and Asprem. The overall aim of the book is to provide a short and user-friendly introduction and critical discussion of the building block approach to religious studies that can be used by undergraduate, graduate and more advanced scholars in the field of religious studies. The aim is to provide a critical primer that addresses how and why scholars of religions should pay attention to the building block approach to religious studies.
  • Lindberg, Jonas, et al. (författare)
  • Religion och politik
  • 2022. - 2
  • Ingår i: Sociologiska perspektiv på religion i Sverige. - : Gleerups Utbildning AB. - 9789151107479
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Linge, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Midkine is expressed and differentially processed during COPD exacerbations and ventilator-associated pneumonia associated with Staphylococcus aureus infection.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1528-3658 .- 1076-1551. ; 19, s. 314-323
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Staphylococcus aureus is sometimes isolated from the airways during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but more commonly recognized as a cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Antimicrobial proteins, among them midkine (MK), are an important part of innate immunity in the airways. In this study, the levels and possible processing of MK in relation to S. aureus infection of the airways were investigated, comparing COPD and VAP, thus comparing a state of disease with preceding chronic inflammation and remodeling (COPD) with acute inflammation (i.e. VAP). MK was detected in the small airways and alveoli of COPD lung tissue but less so in normal lung tissue. MK at below micromolar concentrations killed S. aureus in vitro. Proteolytic processing of MK by the staphylococcal metalloprotease AL but not cysteine protease SA, resulted in impaired bactericidal activity. Degradation was foremost seen in the COOH-terminal portion of the molecule that harbors high bactericidal activity. In addition, MK was detected in sputum from patients suffering from VAP caused by S. aureus but less so in sputum from COPD-exacerbations associated with the same bacterium. Recombinant MK was degraded more rapidly in sputum from the COPD patients than from the VAP patients and a greater proteolytic activity in COPD sputum was confirmed by zymography. Taken together, proteases of both bacteria and the host contribute to degradation of the antibacterial protein MK, resulting in an impaired defense of the airways, in particular in COPD where the state of chronic inflammation could be of importance.
  • Ljungqvist, Fredrik Charpentier, et al. (författare)
  • Kodex : Boken i medeltidens Sverige
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Mediehistoriskt arkiv. - : Mediehistoriskt arkiv. - 1654-6601.
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (refereegranskat)
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