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  • Saénz-de la O, Diana, et al. (författare)
  • Antioxidant and drought‑acclimation responses in UV‑B‑exposed transgenic Nicotiana tabacum displaying constitutive overproduction of H2O2
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. - : Springer. - 1474-905X .- 1474-9092. ; 22:10, s. 2373-2387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an important molecule that regulates antioxidant responses that are crucial for plant stress resistance. Exposure to low levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280–315 nm) can also activate antioxidant defenses and acclimation responses. However, how H2O2 and UV-B interact to promote stress acclimation remains poorly understood. In this work, a transgenic model of Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi nc, with elevated Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD)activity, was used to study the interaction between the constitutive overproduction of H2O2 and a 14-day UV-B treatment (1.75 kJ m−2 d−1 biologically effective UV-B). Subsequently, these plants were subjected to a 7-day moderate drought treatment to evaluate the impact on drought resistance of H2O2- and UV-dependent stimulation of the plants' antioxidant system. The UV-B treatment enhanced H2O2 levels and altered the antioxidant status by increasing the epidermal flavonol index, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and catalase, peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities in the leaves. UV-B also retarded growth and suppressed acclimation responses in highly H2O2-overproducing transgenic plants. Plants not exposed to UV-B had a higher drought resistance in the form of higher relative water content of leaves. Our data associate the interaction between Mn-SOD transgene overexpression and the UV-B treatment with a stress response. Finally, we propose a hormetic biphasic drought resistance response curve as a function of leaf H2O2 content in N. tabacum cv Xanthi.
  • Sáenz-de la, O. Diana, et al. (författare)
  • Ultraviolet-B exposure and exogenous hydrogen peroxide application lead to cross-tolerance toward drought in Nicotiana tabacum L.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Physiologia Plantarum. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0031-9317 .- 1399-3054. ; 173:3, s. 666-679
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acclimation of plants to water deficit involves biochemical and physiological adjustments. Here, we studied how UV‐B exposure and exogenously applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) potentiates drought tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. xanthi nc). Separate and combined applications for 14 days of 1.75 kJ m−2 day−1 UV‐B radiation and 0.2 mM H2O2 were assessed. Both factors, individually and combined, resulted in inhibition of growth. Furthermore, the combined treatment led to the most compacted plants. UV‐B‐ and UV‐B+H2O2‐treated plants increased total antioxidant capacity and foliar epidermal flavonol index. H2O2‐ and UV‐B+H2O2‐pre‐treated plants showed cross‐tolerance to a subsequent 7‐day moderate drought treatment, which was assessed as the absence of negative impact on growth, leaf wilting, and leaf relative water content (RWC). Plant responses to the pre‐treatment were notably different: (1) H2O2 increased the activity of catalase (CAT, EC, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL; EC and peroxidase activities (POD, EC, and (2) the combined treatment induced epidermal flavonols which were key to drought tolerance. We report synergistic effects of UV‐B and H2O2 on transcription accumulation of UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8, NAC DOMAIN PROTEIN 13 (NAC13), and BRI1‐EMS‐SUPPRESSOR 1 (BES1). Our data demonstrate a pre‐treatment‐dependent response to drought for NAC13, BES1 and CHALCONE SYNTHASE transcript accumulation. This study highlights the potential of combining UV‐B and H2O2 to improve drought tolerance which could become a useful tool to reduce water use.
  • Seeburger, P., et al. (författare)
  • From farm to fork… and beyond! UV enhances Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity of cruciferous vegetables in human intestinal cells upon colonic fermentation
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Food Chemistry. - : Elsevier. - 0308-8146 .- 1873-7072. ; 426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While the "farm to fork" strategy ticks many boxes in the sustainability agenda, it does not go far enough in addressing how we can improve crop nutraceutical quality. Here, we explored whether supplementary ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure during growth of broccoli and Chinese cabbage can induce bioactive tryptophan- and glucosinolate-specific metabolite accumulation thereby enhancing Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation in human intestinal cells. By combining metabolomics analysis of both plant extracts and in vitro human colonic fermentation extracts with AhR reporter cell assay, we reveal that human colonic fermentation of UVB-exposed Chinese cabbage led to enhanced AhR activation in human intestinal cells by 23% compared to plants grown without supplementary UV. Thus, by exploring aspects beyond "from farm to fork", our study highlights a new strategy to enhance nutraceutical quality of Brassicaceae, while also providing new insights into the effects of cruciferous vegetables on human intestinal health.
  • Wang, Yucheng, et al. (författare)
  • Late Quaternary Dynamics of Arctic Biota from Ancient Environmental Genomics
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 600:7887, s. 86-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • During the last glacial–interglacial cycle, Arctic biotas experienced substantial climatic changes, yet the nature, extent and rate of their responses are not fully understood1–8. Here we report a large-scale environmental DNA metagenomic study of ancient plant and mammal communities, analysing 535 permafrost and lake sediment samples from across the Arctic spanning the past 50,000 years. Furthermore, we present 1,541 contemporary plant genome assemblies that were generated as reference sequences. Our study provides several insights into the long-term dynamics of the Arctic biota at the circumpolar and regional scales. Our key fndings include: (1) a relatively homogeneous steppe–tundra fora dominated the Arctic during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by regional divergence of vegetation during the Holocene epoch; (2) certain grazing animals consistently co-occurred in space and time; (3) humans appear to have been a minor factor in driving animal distributions; (4) higher efective precipitation, as well as an increase in the proportion of wetland plants, show negative efects on animal diversity; (5) the persistence of the steppe–tundra vegetation in northern Siberia enabled the late survival of several now-extinct megafauna species, including the woolly mammoth until 3.9 ± 0.2 thousand years ago (ka) and the woolly rhinoceros until 9.8 ± 0.2 ka; and (6) phylogenetic analysis of mammoth environmental DNA reveals a previously unsampled mitochondrial lineage. Our fndings highlight the power of ancient environmental metagenomics analyses to advance understanding of population histories and long-term ecological dynamics
  • Wang, Yucheng, et al. (författare)
  • Reply to: When did mammoths go extinct?
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 612:7938, s. 4-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
  • Yan, F., et al. (författare)
  • Rotating-frame relaxation as a noise spectrum analyser of a superconducting qubit undergoing driven evolution
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 4, s. 2337-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gate operations in a quantum information processor are generally realized by tailoring specific periods of free and driven evolution of a quantum system. Unwanted environmental noise, which may in principle be distinct during these two periods, acts to decohere the system and increase the gate error rate. Although there has been significant progress characterizing noise processes during free evolution, the corresponding driven-evolution case is more challenging as the noise being probed is also extant during the characterization protocol. Here we demonstrate the noise spectroscopy (0.1-200 MHz) of a superconducting flux qubit during driven evolution by using a robust spin-locking pulse sequence to measure relaxation (T1ρ) in the rotating frame. In the case of flux noise, we resolve spectral features due to coherent fluctuators, and further identify a signature of the 1 MHz defect in a time-domain spin-echo experiment. The driven-evolution noise spectroscopy complements free-evolution methods, enabling the means to characterize and distinguish various noise processes relevant for universal quantum control. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
  • Yan, F., et al. (författare)
  • Spectroscopy of low-frequency noise and its temperature dependence in a superconducting qubit
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 2469-9950 .- 2469-9969. ; 85:17, s. 174521-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report a direct measurement of the low-frequency noise spectrum in a superconducting flux qubit. Our method uses the noise sensitivity of a free-induction Ramsey interference experiment, comprising free evolution in the presence of noise for a fixed period of time followed by single-shot qubit-state measurement. Repeating this procedure enables Fourier-transform noise spectroscopy with access to frequencies up to the achievable repetition rate, a regime relevant to dephasing in ensemble-averaged time-domain measurements such as Ramsey interferometry. Rotating the qubit's quantization axis allows us to measure two types of noise: effective flux noise and effective critical-current or charge noise. For both noise sources, we observe that the very same 1/f-type power laws measured at considerably higher frequencies (0.2-20 MHz) are consistent with the noise in the 0.01-100-Hz range measured here. We find no evidence of temperature dependence of the noises over 65-200 mK, and also no evidence of time-domain correlations between the two noises. These methods and results are pertinent to the dephasing of all superconducting qubits. © 2012 American Physical Society.
  • Zhang, Guojie, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 346:6215, s. 1311-1320
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits.
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