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  • Robledo-Abad, Carmenza, et al. (författare)
  • Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policy-making remains limited
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy. - 1757-1693 .- 1757-1707. ; 9:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The possibility of using bioenergy as a climate change mitigation measure has sparked a discussion of whether and how bioenergy production contributes to sustainable development. We undertook a systematic review of the scientific literature to illuminate this relationship and found a limited scientific basis for policy-making. Our results indicate that knowledge on the sustainable development impacts of bioenergy production is concentrated in a few well-studied countries, focuses on environmental and economic impacts, and mostly relates to dedicated agricultural biomass plantations. The scope and methodological approaches in studies differ widely and only a small share of the studies sufficiently reports on context and/or baseline conditions, which makes it difficult to get a general understanding of the attribution of impacts. Nevertheless we identified regional patterns of positive or negative impacts for all categories – environmental, economic, institutional, social and technological. In general, economic and technological impacts were more frequently reported as positive, while social and environmental impacts were more frequently reported as negative (with the exception of impacts on direct substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production.
  • Weismuller, T. J., et al. (författare)
  • Patient Age, Sex, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Phenotype Associate With Course of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - : W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC. - 0016-5085 .- 1528-0012. ; 152:8, s. 1975-1984.e8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an orphan hepatobiliary disorder associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to estimate the risk of disease progression based on distinct clinical phenotypes in a large international cohort of patients with PSC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective outcome analysis of patients diagnosed with PSC from 1980 through 2010 at 37 centers in Europe, North America, and Australia. For each patient, we collected data on sex, clinician-reported age at and date of PSC and IBD diagnoses, phenotypes of IBD and PSC, and date and indication of IBD-related surgeries. The primary and secondary endpoints were liver transplantation or death (LTD) and hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the effects of individual covariates on rates of clinical events, with time-to-event analysis ascertained through Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: Of the 7121 patients in the cohort, 2616 met the primary endpoint (median time to event of 14.5 years) and 721 developed hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy. The most common malignancy was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 594); patients of advanced age at diagnosis had an increased incidence compared with younger patients (incidence rate: 1.2 per 100 patient-years for patients younger than 20 years old, 6.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 21-30 years old, 9.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 31-40 years old, 14.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 4150 years old, 15.2 per 100 patient-years for patients 51-60 years old, and 21.0 per 100 patient-years for patients older than 60 years). Of all patients with PSC studied, 65.5% were men, 89.8% had classical or large-duct disease, and 70.0% developed IBD at some point. Assessing the development of IBD as a time-dependent covariate, Crohn's disease and no IBD (both vs ulcerative colitis) were associated with a lower risk of LTD (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; P <.001 and HR, 0.90; P =.03, respectively) and malignancy (HR, 0.68; P =.008 and HR, 0.77; P =.004, respectively). Small-duct PSC was associated with a lower risk of LTD or malignancy compared with classic PSC (HR, 0.30 and HR, 0.15, respectively; both P <.001). Female sex was also associated with a lower risk of LTD or malignancy (HR, 0.88; P =.002 and HR, 0.68; P <.001, respectively). In multivariable analyses assessing the primary endpoint, small-duct PSC characterized a low-risk phenotype in both sexes (adjusted HR for men, 0.23; P <.001 and adjusted HR for women, 0.48; P =.003). Conversely, patients with ulcerative colitis had an increased risk of liver disease progression compared with patients with Crohn's disease (HR, 1.56; P <.001) or no IBD (HR, 1.15; P =.002). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from individual patients with PSC worldwide, we found significant variation in clinical course associated with age at diagnosis, sex, and ductal and IBD subtypes. The survival estimates provided might be used to estimate risk levels for patients with PSC and select patients for clinical trials.
  • Hansson, S. F., et al. (författare)
  • Secretagogin is increased in plasma from type 2 diabetes patients and potentially reflects stress and islet dysfunction
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 13:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Beta cell dysfunction accompanies and drives the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), but there are few clinical biomarkers available to assess islet cell stress in humans. Secretagogin, a protein enriched in pancreatic islets, demonstrates protective effects on beta cell function in animals. However, its potential as a circulating biomarker released from human beta cells and islets has not been studied. In this study primary human islets, beta cells and plasma samples were used to explore secretion and expression of secretagogin in relation to the T2D pathology. Secretagogin was abundantly and specifically expressed and secreted from human islets. Furthermore, T2D patients had an elevated plasma level of secretagogin compared with matched healthy controls, which was confirmed in plasma of diabetic mice transplanted with human islets. Additionally, the plasma secretagogin level of the human cohort had an inverse correlation to clinical assessments of beta cell function. To explore the mechanism of secretagogin release in vitro, human beta cells (EndoC-[beta H1) were exposed to elevated glucose or cellular stress-inducing agents. Secretagogin was not released in parallel with glucose stimulated insulin release, but was markedly elevated in response to endoplasmic reticulum stressors and cytokines. These findings indicate that secretagogin is a potential novel biomarker, reflecting stress and islet cell dysfunction in T2D patients.
  • Pereira, M.J., et al. (författare)
  • FKBP5 expression in human adipose tissue increases following dexamethasone exposure and is associated with insulin resistance
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. - 0026-0495 .- 1532-8600. ; 63:9, s. 1198-1208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To study effects of dexamethasone on gene expression in human adipose tissue aiming to identify potential novel mechanisms for glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. Materials/methods Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue, obtained from non-diabetic donors (10 M/15 F; age: 28-60 years; BMI: 20.7-30.6 kg/m2), was incubated with or without dexamethasone (0.003-3 μmol/L) for 24 h. Gene expression was assessed by microarray and real time-PCR and protein expression by immunoblotting. Results FKBP5 (FK506-binding protein 5) and CNR1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) were the most responsive genes to dexamethasone in both subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue (~ 7-fold). Dexamethasone increased FKBP5 gene and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner in both depots. The gene product, FKBP51 protein, was 10-fold higher in the omental than in the subcutaneous depot, whereas the mRNA levels were similar. Higher FKBP5 gene expression in omental adipose tissue was associated with reduced insulin effects on glucose uptake in both depots. Furthermore, FKBP5 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue was positively correlated with serum insulin, HOMA-IR and subcutaneous adipocyte diameter and negatively with plasma HDL-cholesterol. FKBP5 SNPs were found to be associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related phenotypes in large population-based samples. Conclusions Dexamethasone exposure promotes expression of FKBP5 in adipose tissue, a gene that may be implicated in glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
  • Rosser, Z H, et al. (författare)
  • Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 67:6, s. 1526-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic polymorphisms, defining 10 haplogroups, to analyze a sample of 3,616 Y chromosomes belonging to 47 European and circum-European populations. Patterns of geographic differentiation are highly nonrandom, and, when they are assessed using spatial autocorrelation analysis, they show significant clines for five of six haplogroups analyzed. Clines for two haplogroups, representing 45% of the chromosomes, are continentwide and consistent with the demic diffusion hypothesis. Clines for three other haplogroups each have different foci and are more regionally restricted and are likely to reflect distinct population movements, including one from north of the Black Sea. Principal-components analysis suggests that populations are related primarily on the basis of geography, rather than on the basis of linguistic affinity. This is confirmed in Mantel tests, which show a strong and highly significant partial correlation between genetics and geography but a low, nonsignificant partial correlation between genetics and language. Genetic-barrier analysis also indicates the primacy of geography in the shaping of patterns of variation. These patterns retain a strong signal of expansion from the Near East but also suggest that the demographic history of Europe has been complex and influenced by other major population movements, as well as by linguistic and geographic heterogeneities and the effects of drift.
  • Ingegnoli, Francesca, et al. (författare)
  • A comparison between nailfold capillaroscopy patterns in adulthood in juvenile and adult-onset systemic sclerosis: A EUSTAR exploratory study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Microvascular Research. - : Academic Press. - 1095-9319. ; 102, s. 19-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Qualitative capillaroscopy patterns in juvenile- and adult-onset systemic sclerosis (SSc) were studied in adulthood using data from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database. Methods: Data collected between June 2004 and April 2013 were examined with focus on capillaroscopy. In this retrospective exploratory study, series of patients with juvenile-onset SSc were matched with series of adult-onset SSc having the same gender and autoantibody profile. Results: 30 of 123 patients with juvenile-onset and 2108 of 7133 with adult-onset SSc had data on capillaroscopy. Juvenile-onset SSc showed scleroderma pattern more frequently than adult-onset SSc (93.3% and 88%). The OR was 2.44 and 95% Cl 0.57-10.41. An active scleroderma pattern was present in 58% of juvenile- and 61% of adult-onset SSc. The OR was 0.91 and 95% Cl 0.28-2.93. The late scleroderma pattern was present in 61% of juvenile- and 55.5% of adult-onset SSc. The OR was 1.06 and 95% Cl 0.34-3.56. Conclusion: This is the first exploratory study on the comparison of capillaroscopy between juvenile- and adult-onset SSc in adulthood. Juvenile-onset SSc had an increase prevalence of sderoderma pattern, but a similar distribution of the three patterns was suggested. Further studies are needed to define this issue. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Sidibeh, C. O., et al. (författare)
  • FKBP5 expression in human adipose tissue: potential role in glucose and lipid metabolism, adipogenesis and type 2 diabetes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Endocrine. - : Springer. - 1355-008X .- 1559-0100. ; 62:1, s. 116-128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Here, we explore the involvement of FKBP51 in glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance (IR) in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), including its potential role in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moreover, we assess the metabolic effects of reducing the activity of FKBP51 using the specific inhibitor SAFit1. Methods Human SAT was obtained by needle biopsies of the lower abdominal region. FKBP5 gene expression was assessed in fresh SAT explants from a cohort of 20 T2D subjects group-wise matched by gender, age and BMI to 20 nondiabetic subjects. In addition, human SAT was obtained from non-diabetic volunteers (20F/9M). SAT was incubated for 24 h with or without the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and SAFit1. Incubated SAT was used to measure the glucose uptake rate in isolated adipocytes. Results FKBP5 gene expression levels in SAT positively correlated with several indices of IR as well as glucose area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test (r = 0.33, p < 0.05). FKBP5 gene expression levels tended to be higher in T2D subjects compared to non-diabetic subjects (p = 0.088). Moreover, FKBP5 gene expression levels were found to inversely correlate with lipolytic, lipogenic and adipogenic genes. SAFit1 partly prevented the inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on glucose uptake. Conclusions FKBP5 gene expression in human SAT tends to be increased in T2D subjects and is related to elevated glucose levels. Moreover, FKBP5 gene expression is inversely associated with the expression of lipolytic, lipogenic and adipogenic genes. SAFit1 can partly prevent glucose uptake impairment by glucocorticoids, suggesting that FKBP51 might be a key factor in glucocorticoid-induced IR.
  • Sidibeh, C. O., et al. (författare)
  • Role of cannabinoid receptor 1 in human adipose tissue for lipolysis regulation and insulin resistance
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Endocrine. - : SPRINGER. - 1355-008X .- 1559-0100. ; 55:3, s. 839-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We recently showed that the peripheral cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CNR1) gene is upregulated by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. CNR1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system and has been a drug target for the treatment of obesity. Here we explore the role of peripheral CNR1 in states of insulin resistance in human adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained from well-controlled type 2 diabetes subjects and controls. Subcutaneous adipose tissue gene expression levels of CNR1 and endocannabinoid synthesizing and degrading enzymes were assessed. Furthermore, paired human subcutaneous adipose tissue and omental adipose tissue from non-diabetic volunteers undergoing kidney donation or bariatric surgery, was incubated with or without dexamethasone. Subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from volunteers through needle biopsy was incubated with or without dexamethasone and in the presence or absence of the CNR1-specific antagonist AM281. CNR1 gene and protein expression, lipolysis and glucose uptake were evaluated. Subcutaneous adipose tissue CNR1 gene expression levels were 2-fold elevated in type 2 diabetes subjects compared with control subjects. Additionally, gene expression levels of CNR1 and endocannabinoid-regulating enzymes from both groups correlated with markers of insulin resistance. Dexamethasone increased CNR1 expression dose-dependently in subcutaneous adipose tissue and omental adipose tissue by up to 25-fold. Dexamethasone pre-treatment of subcutaneous adipose tissue increased lipolysis rate and reduced glucose uptake. Co-incubation with the CNR1 antagonist AM281 prevented the stimulatory effect on lipolysis, but had no effect on glucose uptake. CNR1 is upregulated in states of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Furthermore, CNR1 is involved in glucocorticoid-regulated lipolysis. Peripheral CNR1 could be an interesting drug target in type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.
  • Beeton, Michael L., et al. (författare)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, 11 countries in Europe and Israel, 2011 to 2016
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Eurosurveillance. - : EUR CENTRE DIS PREVENTION & CONTROL. - 1025-496X .- 1560-7917. ; 25:2, s. 39-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, with large epidemics previously described to occur every 4 to 7 years.Aim: To better understand the diagnostic methods used to detect M. pneumoniae; to better understand M. pneumoniae testing and surveillance in use; to identify epidemics; to determine detection number per age group, age demographics for positive detections, concurrence of epidemics and annual peaks across geographical areas; and to determine the effect of geographical location on the timing of epidemics.Methods: A questionnaire was sent in May 2016 to Mycoplasma experts with national or regional responsibility within the ESCMID Study Group for Mycoplasma and Chlamydia Infections in 17 countries across Europe and Israel, retrospectively requesting details on M. pneumoniae-positive samples from January 2011 to April 2016. The Moving Epidemic Method was used to determine epidemic periods and effect of country latitude across the countries for the five periods under investigation.Results: Representatives from 12 countries provided data on M. pneumoniae infections, accounting for 95,666 positive samples. Two laboratories initiated routine macrolide resistance testing since 2013. Between 2011 and 2016, three epidemics were identified: 2011/12, 2014/15 and 2015/16. The distribution of patient ages for M. pneumoniae-positive samples showed three patterns. During epidemic years, an association between country latitude and calendar week when epidemic periods began was noted.Conclusions: An association between epidemics and latitude was observed. Differences were noted in the age distribution of positive cases and detection methods used and practice. A lack of macrolide resistance monitoring was noted.
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