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  • Tardocchi, M., et al. (författare)
  • High rate neutron and gamma ray spectroscopy of magnetic confinement fusion plasmas
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An important instrumental development work has been done in the last two decades in the field of neutron and gamma ray spectroscopic measurements of magnetic confinement plasmas. Starting from the present state of the art instrumentation installed at JET, this paper reviews the recent development that has been carried out within the EUROFUSION programme for the forthcoming high power JET D and DT campaign. This development was dedicated to the realization of new compact neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers which combine very high energy resolution (typically better than 5%) and MHz counting rate capabilities allowing for time resolution in the 10 ms time scale. One of the advantages offered by the compact dimensions of these spectrometers is to make possible their use in multiple sight-line camera configurations, such as for future burning plasma reactors (ITER and DEMO). New compact neutron spectrometers based on single crystal diamond detectors have been developed and installed at JET for measurements of the 14MeV neutron spectrum. Measurements on a portable DT neutron generator have shown that neutron spectroscopy of the accelerated beam ions at unprecedented energy resolution (similar to 1% at 14 MeV) is possible, which opens up new opportunities for diagnosing DT plasmas. For what concerns gamma ray measurements, the JET gamma ray camera has been recently upgraded with new compact spectrometers based on a LaBr3 scintillator coupled to Silicon Photomultiplier with the dual aim to improve the spectroscopic and rate capabilities of the detectors. The upgrade camera system will reconstruct the spatial gamma ray emissivity from the plasma in the MeV energy range at MHz counting rates and energy resolution in the 2-4% range. This will allow physics studies of gamma rays produced by the interaction of fast ions with impurities in the plasma and bremsstrahlung emission from runaway electrons.
  • Taubenberger, S., et al. (författare)
  • SN2012dn from early to late times : 09dc-like supernovae reassessed
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 488:4, s. 5473-5488
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As a candidate super-Chandrasekhar' or 09dc-like TypeIa supernova (SNIa), SN 2012dn shares many characteristics with other members of this remarkable class of objects but lacks their extraordinary luminosity. Here, we present and discuss the most comprehensive optical data set of this SN to date, comprised of a densely sampled series of early-time spectra obtained within the Nearby Supernova Factory project, plus photometry and spectroscopy obtained at the Very Large Telescope about 1yr after the explosion. The light curves, colour curves, spectral time series, and ejecta velocities of SN 2012dn are compared with those of other 09dc-like and normal SNeIa, the overall variety within the class of 09dc-like SNeIa is discussed, and new criteria for 09dc-likeness are proposed. Particular attention is directed to additional insight that the late-phase data provide. The nebular spectra show forbidden lines of oxygen and calcium, elements that are usually not seen in late-time spectra of SNeIa, while the ionization state of the emitting iron plasma is low, pointing to low ejecta temperatures and high densities. The optical light curves are characterized by an enhanced fading starting similar to 60d after maximum and very low luminosities in the nebular phase, which is most readily explained by unusually early formation of clumpy dust in the ejecta. Taken together, these effects suggest a strongly perturbed ejecta density profile, which might lend support to the idea that 09dc-like characteristics arise from a brief episode of interaction with a hydrogen-deficient envelope during the first hours or days after the explosion.
  • Teodoro, M., et al. (författare)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 746:1, s. 73-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The periodic spectroscopic events in eta Carinae are now well established and occur near the periastron passage of two massive stars in a very eccentric orbit. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the variations of different spectral features, such as an eclipse by the wind-wind collision (WWC) boundary, a shell ejection from the primary star or accretion of its wind onto the secondary. All of them have problems explaining all the observed phenomena. To better understand the nature of the cyclic events, we performed a dense monitoring of eta Carinae with five Southern telescopes during the 2009 low-excitation event, resulting in a set of data of unprecedented quality and sampling. The intrinsic luminosity of the He II lambda 4686 emission line (L similar to 310 L-circle dot) just before periastron reveals the presence of a very luminous transient source of extreme UV radiation emitted in the WWC region. Clumps in the primary's wind probably explain the flare-like behavior of both the X-ray and He II lambda 4686 light curves. After a short-lived minimum, He II lambda 4686 emission rises again to a new maximum, when X-rays are still absent or very weak. We interpret this as a collapse of the WWC onto the surface of the secondary star, switching off the hard X-ray source and diminishing the WWC shock cone. The recovery from this state is controlled by the momentum balance between the secondary's wind and the clumps in the primary's wind.
  • Wesseling-Perry, K., et al. (författare)
  • Osteocyte Protein Expression Is Altered in Low-Turnover Osteoporosis Caused by Mutations in WNT1 and PLS3
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 102:7, s. 2340-2348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Osteocytes express proteins that regulate bone remodeling and mineralization. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between osteocyte-specific protein expression and bone histology in patients with monogenic osteoporosis due to wingless integration site 1 (WNT1) or plastin 3 (PLS3) mutations. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional cohort study at a university hospital. Participants: Six patients (four males; ages: 14 to 72 years) with a heterozygous WNT1 mutation and five patients (four males; ages: 9 to 70 years) with a heterozygous/hemizygous PLS3 mutation. Methods and Main Outcome Measures: Immunohistochemistry was performed for fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), sclerostin, and phosphorylated (phospho-)beta-catenin in iliac crest samples and compared with bone histomorphometry. Results: FGF23 expression in WNT1 patients was 243% that observed in PLS3 patients (P < 0.01). DMP1, sclerostin, and phospho-beta-catenin expression did not differ between groups. Serum phosphate correlated inversely with FGF23 expression (r = -0.79, P = 0.01) and serum ionized calcium correlated inversely with sclerostin expression (r = -0.60, P = 0.05). Phospho-beta-catenin expression correlated inversely with DMP1 expression (r = -0.88, P < 0.001), osteoid volume/bone volume (r = -0.68, P = 0.02), and bone formation rate (r = -0.78, P < 0.01). FGF23 expression did not correlate with DMP1 expression, sclerostin expression, or bone histomorphometry. Marrow adiposity was higher in WNT1 than in PLS3 patients (P = 0.04). Conclusions: Mutations that disrupt WNT signaling and osteocytic mechanosensing affect osteocyte protein expression. Abnormal osteocyte function may play a role in the pathogenesis of monogenetic forms of osteoporosis.
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