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  • Devries, K. M., et al. (författare)
  • Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos Medicine. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1549-1676. ; 10:5
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I-2 = 50.4%, p(heterogeneity) = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I-2 = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions: In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts.
  • Devries, Karen, et al. (författare)
  • Violence against children in Latin America and the Caribbean: What do available data reveal about prevalence and perpetrators?
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health. - 1680-5348. ; 43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To describe the prevalence of recent physical, sexual, and emotional violence against children 0 - 19 years of age in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) by age, sex, and perpetrator.A systematic review and analysis of published literature and large international datasets was conducted. Eligible sources from first record to December 2015 contained age-, sex-, and perpetrator-specific data from LAC. Random effects meta-regressions were performed, adjusting for relevant quality covariates and differences in violence definitions.Seventy-two surveys (2 publications and 70 datasets) met inclusion criteria, representing 1 449 estimates from 34 countries. Prevalence of physical and emotional violence by caregivers ranged from 30% - 60%, and decreased with increasing age. Prevalence of physical violence by students (17% - 61%) declined with age, while emotional violence remained constant (60% - 92%). Prevalence of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) ranged from 13% - 18% for girls aged 15 - 19 years. Few or no eligible past-year estimates were available for any violence against children less than 9 years and boys 16 - 19 years of age; sexual violence against boys (any age) and girls (under 15 years); IPV except for girls aged 15 - 19 years; and violence by authority figures (e.g., teachers) or via gangs/organized crime.Past-year physical and emotional violence by caregivers and students is widespread in LAC across all ages in childhood, as is IPV against girls aged 15 - 19 years. Data collection must be expanded in LAC to monitor progress towards the sustainable development goals, develop effective prevention and response strategies, and shed light on violence relating to organized crime/gangs.
  • Devries, K., et al. (författare)
  • Who perpetrates violence against children? A systematic analysis of age-specific and sex-specific data
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Paediatr Open. - : BMJ. - 2399-9772. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The epidemiology of violence against children is likely to differ substantially by sex and age of the victim and the perpetrator. Thus far, investment in effective prevention strategies has been hindered by lack of clarity in the burden of childhood violence across these dimensions. We produced the first age-specific and sex-specific prevalence estimates by perpetrator type for physical, sexual and emotional violence against children globally. Design: We used random effects meta-regression to estimate prevalence. Estimates were adjusted for relevant quality covariates, variation in definitions of violence and weighted by region-specific, age-specific and sex-specific population data to ensure estimates reflect country population structures. Data sources: Secondary data from 600 population or school-based representative datasets and 43 publications obtained via systematic literature review, representing 13 830 estimates from 171 countries. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: Estimates for recent violence against children aged 0-19 were included. Results: The most common perpetrators of physical and emotional violence for both boys and girls across a range of ages are household members, with prevalence often surpassing 50%, followed by student peers. Children reported experiencing more emotional than physical violence from both household members and students. The most common perpetrators of sexual violence against girls aged 15-19 years are intimate partners; however, few data on other perpetrators of sexual violence against children are systematically collected internationally. Few age-specific and sex-specific data are available on violence perpetration by schoolteachers; however, existing data indicate high prevalence of physical violence from teachers towards students. Data from other authority figures, strangers, siblings and other adults are limited, as are data on neglect of children. Conclusions: Without further investment in data generation on violence exposure from multiple perpetrators for boys and girls of all ages, progress towards Sustainable Development Goals 4, 5 and 16 may be slow. Despite data gaps, evidence shows violence from household members, peers in school and for girls, from intimate partners, should be prioritised for prevention. Trial registration number: PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015024315.
  • Dicker, D., et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - : Elsevier BV. - 0140-6736.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Assessments of age-specific mortality and life expectancy have been done by the UN Population Division, Department of Economics and Social Affairs (UNPOP), the United States Census Bureau, WHO, and as part of previous iterations of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD). Previous iterations of the GBD used population estimates from UNPOP, which were not derived in a way that was internally consistent with the estimates of the numbers of deaths in the GBD. The present iteration of the GBD, GBD 2017, improves on previous assessments and provides timely estimates of the mortality experience of populations globally. Methods The GBD uses all available data to produce estimates of mortality rates between 1950 and 2017 for 23 age groups, both sexes, and 918 locations, including 195 countries and territories and subnational locations for 16 countries. Data used include vital registration systetns, sample registration systetns, household surveys (complete birth histories, summary birth histories, sibling histories), censuses (summary birth histories, household deaths), and Demographic Surveillance Sites. In total, this analysis used 8259 data sources. Estimates of the probability of death between birth and the age of 5 years and between ages 15 and 60 years are generated and then input into a model life table system to produce complete life tables for all locations and years. Fatal discontinuities and mortality due to HIV/AIDS are analysed separately and then incorporated into the estimation. We analyse the relationship between age-specific mortality and development status using the Socio-demographic Index, a composite measure based on fertility under the age of 25 years, education, and income. There are four main methodological improvements in GBD 2017 compared with GBD 2016: 622 additional data sources have been incorporated; new estimates of population, generated by the GBD study, are used; statistical methods used in different components of the analysis have been further standardised and improved; and the analysis has been extended backwards in time by two decades to start in 1950. Findings Globally, 18.7% (95% uncertainty interval 18.4-19.0) of deaths were registered in 1950 and that proportion has been steadily increasing since, with 58.8% (58.2-59.3) of all deaths being registered in 2015. At the global level, between 1950 and 2017, life expectancy increased from 48.1 years (46.5-49.6) to 70.5 years (70.1-70.8) for men and from 52.9 years (51.7-54.0) to 75.6 years (75.3-75.9) for women. Despite this overall progress, there remains substantial variation in life expectancy at birth in 2017, which ranges from 49.1 years (46.5-51.7) for men in the Central African Republic to 87.6 years (86.9-88.1) among women in Singapore. The greatest progress across age groups was for children younger than 5 years; under-5 mortality dropped from 216.0 deaths (196.3-238.1) per 1000 livebirths in 1950 to 38.9 deaths (35.6-42.83) per 1000 livebirths in 2017, with huge reductions across countries. Nevertheless, there were still 5.4 million (5.2-5.6) deaths among children younger than 5 years in the world in 2017. Progress has been less pronounced and more variable for adults, especially for adult tnales, who had stagnant or increasing mortality rates in several countries. The gap between male and female life expectancy between 1950 and 2017, while relatively stable at the global level, shows distinctive patterns across super-regions and has consistently been the largest in central Europe, eastern Europe, and central Asia, and smallest in south Asia. Performance was also variable across countries and time in observed mortality rates compared with those expected on the basis of development. Interpretation This analysis of age-sex-specific mortality shows that there are remarkably complex patterns in population mortality across countries. The findings of this study highlight global successes, such as the large decline in under-5 mortality, which reflects significant local, national, and global commitment and investment over several decades. However, they also bring attention to mortality patterns that are a cause for concern, particularly among adult men and, to a lesser extent, wotnen, whose mortality rates have stagnated in many countries over the time period of this study, and in some cases are increasing. Copyright C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Dimenäs, Sandra L., 1989, et al. (författare)
  • A person-centred, theory-based, behavioural intervention programme for improved oral hygiene in adolescents: A randomized clinical field study
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology. - : Wiley. - 0303-6979 .- 1600-051X. ; 49:4, s. 237-387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To test the effectiveness of a person-centred and theory-based educational intervention to increase adolescents′ adherence to adequate oral hygiene behaviour, that is, self-performed periodontal infection control. Materials and Methods: Data were derived from a prospective, multi-centred, two-arm, quasi-randomized field study in which treatment was performed by dental hygienists (DHs) within the Public Dental Service, Västra Götaland, Sweden. Adolescents with poor oral hygiene conditions were invited to participate. The test intervention was based on cognitive behavioural theory and principles, and the DHs used a collaborative communicative approach, inspired by motivational interviewing. The control intervention consisted of conventional information/instruction. Clinical assessments and oral hygiene behaviours were evaluated at 6 months. Results: Three-hundred and twelve adolescents were enrolled, of whom 274 followed the treatment to 6-month follow-up. There were significant improvements in gingival bleeding and plaque scores for both treatment groups at 6 months, with significantly greater improvements in the test group. Adolescents in the test group brushed their teeth and used interdental cleaning aids more frequently compared to participants in the control group at 6 months. Conclusion: A person-centred and theory-based oral health education programme is more effective than conventional oral health education in improving adolescents' oral hygiene behaviour and periodontal infection control. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02906098). © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Periodontology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Do, Loan Minh, et al. (författare)
  • Feeding of preschool children in Vietnam: a study of parents’ practices and associated factors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Nutrition. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2055-0928. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Understanding parents’ feeding control practices and their associations with various factors is useful for prevention of childhood obesity, an emerging problem in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this paper is to describe the control practices used by parents of preschool children in Vietnam and factors associated with these. Methods Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in urban DodaLab (n = 1364) and rural FilaBavi (n = 1313), Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites (HDSS), Hanoi, Vietnam. For 94.9 % of the children, both parents answered the Child Feeding Questionnaire and additional questions about nutritional practices. Children’s and parents’ weight and height were measured. Simple Pearson correlation coefficients, multiple regression and exploratory factor analysis were used for the statistical analysis. Results Mothers reported the use of more restriction, pressure to eat and monitoring than the fathers. The measured child’s body mass index (BMI) and the mother’s perception of the child’s weight were negatively associated with pressure to eat and positively associated with monitoring. A positive association was found between restriction and the mother’s perception of the child’s weight. In the rural area, high consumption of fatty food, sweets and snacks was associated with high use of restriction and monitoring. The amount of food consumed was negatively associated with the use of pressure to eat. In the urban area, consumption of fatty food and sweets was positively correlated both with restriction and pressure to eat. Monitoring was negatively associated with consumption of fatty food and snacks and positively with the amount of food. Higher education of the mothers was associated with higher use of monitoring, restriction (in the urban area) and pressure to eat (in the rural area). Conclusions While feeding practices in Vietnam differed between mothers and fathers and between urban and rural areas, the associations with children’s BMI and socioeconomic factors were weak. This implies that parental roles as well as sociodemographic factors should be considered when designing programs for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity.
  • Do, Loan Minh, et al. (författare)
  • Preschool overweight and obesity in urban and rural Vietnam: differences in prevalence and associated factors
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Global Health Action. - : Informa UK Limited. - 1654-9880 .- 1654-9716. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Childhood obesity may soon be an equally important health threat as undernutrition and infectious diseases. Accurate information about prevalence and risk factors of obesity in children is important for the design of prevention. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of overweight and obesity for preschool children in two Vietnamese areas, one urban and one rural, and to identify risk factors. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban Dong Da and rural Ba Vi districts, Hanoi, Vietnam. Totally, 2,677 children, 1,364 urban and 1,313 rural, were weighed and measured. Caregivers were interviewed. Background information about children and families was obtained from regular household surveys. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined were 21.1% (95% CI 18.9-23.3) in the urban area and 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-9.2) in the rural. Multiple logistic regression revealed that at the individual level, in both sites, the risk increased with increased child age. The identified urban risk factors were being a boy, consuming large amounts of food, eating fast, and indoor activity less than 2 hours per day. The rural risk factors were frequent consumption of fatty food. At the family level, significant association was found in rural areas with frequent watching of food advertisements on television. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are emerging problems in Vietnam, particularly in the urban context. Prevention programs should focus on education about healthy eating habits at early preschool age and need to be tailored separately for urban and rural areas since the risk factors differ. Non-healthy food advertisement needs to be restricted.
  • Do, L. M., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity among Vietnamese preschool children: a longitudinal cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2431. ; 17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A plateau in childhood overweight and obesity has been reported in some developed countries while in almost all developing countries this problem is on the rise. The aim of this paper is to describe the changes in prevalence of overweight and obesity within a cohort of preschool children followed for 3 years, and to estimate and compare the incidences in urban and rural children of Hanoi, Vietnam. Methods: A longitudinal study of a cohort of 2677 children aged 3 to 6 years old at the beginning of the study was conducted in urban DodaLab and rural FilaBavi, Hanoi, Vietnam. Overall, 2602 children, 1311 urban and 1291 rural, were followed for 3 years with identical measurements of weight and height in 2013, 2014 and 2016. Standard methods were used to estimate prevalence and incidence as well as confidence intervals. Results: During the three-year follow-up, the overall estimated prevalence of overweight increased from 9.1% to 16.7%. For the urban children, the increase was considerably higher. The overall prevalence of obesity decreased from 6.4% to 4.5% with less decrease in the urban children. In the group of children who were overweight and obese at the start of the study, 41.4% and 30.7%, respectively, remained in the same state three years later. The incidence of overweight and obesity during the three years were 12.4% and 2.7%, respectively. Boys were more likely to develop obesity than girls. Conclusions: Already in preschool age, the prevalence of overweight is high and it continues to increase with age, especially in the urban area. Prevention and intervention programs need to start at early preschool age and actions in urban areas deserve priority.
  • Elfving, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Pathogen Clearance and New Respiratory Tract Infections Among Febrile Children in Zanzibar Investigated With Multitargeting Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction on Paired Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. - : Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health). - 0891-3668. ; 37:7, s. 643-648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: New molecular methods have revealed frequent and often polymicrobial respiratory infections in children in low-income settings. It is not known whether presence of multiple pathogens is due to prolonged infections or to frequent exposure. The aim of this study was to analyze short-term pathogen clearance from nasopharynx and the rate of new respiratory tract infections in febrile preschool children. Methods: Children (n = 207) with uncomplicated acute febrile illness 2-59 months of age presenting to a health center in Zanzibar, Tanzania, April-July 2011, were included. Paired nasopharyngeal swab samples, collected at enrolment and after 14 days, were analyzed by multiple real-time polymerase chain reaction for Adenovirus, bocavirus, Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Coronaviruses, Enterovirus, influenza A and B virus, metapneumovirus, measles virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, parainfluenza virus, Parechovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and Rhinovirus. An age-matched and geographically matched healthy control group (n = 166) underwent nasopharyngeal sampling on 1 occasion. Results: At baseline, 157/207 (76%) patients had at least 1 pathogen detected, in total 199 infections. At follow-up (day 14), 162/199 (81%) of these infections were not detected, including >95% of the previously detected infections with Enterovirus, influenza A virus, influenza B virus, metapneumovirus or parainfluenza virus. Still 115 (56%) children were positive for at least 1 pathogen at follow-up, of which 95/115 (83%) were not found at baseline. Detection of influenza B on day 14 was significantly associated with fever during follow-up. Conclusion: The results suggest that children with acute febrile illness in Zanzibar rapidly clear respiratory tract infections but frequently acquire new infections within 14 days.
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