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  • Föregående 1[2]34Nästa
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  • Dratva, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Early Life Origins of Lung Ageing : Early Life Exposures and Lung Function Decline in Adulthood in Two European Cohorts Aged 28-73 Years
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives Early life environment is essential for lung growth and maximally attained lung function. Whether early life exposures impact on lung function decline in adulthood, an indicator of lung ageing, has scarcely been studied. Methods Spirometry data from two time points (follow-up time 9-11 years) and information on early life exposures, health and life-style were available from 12862 persons aged 28-73 years participating in the European population-based cohorts SAPALDIA (n = 5705) and ECRHS (n = 7157). The associations of early life exposures with lung function (FEV1) decline were analysed using mixed-effects linear regression. Results Early life exposures were significantly associated with FEV1 decline, with estimates almost as large as personal smoking. FEV1 declined more rapidly among subjects born during the winter season (adjusted difference in FEV1/year of follow-up [95% CI] -2.04ml [-3.29;-0.80]), of older mothers, (-1.82 ml [-3.14;-0.49]) of smoking mothers (-1.82ml [-3.30;-0.34] or with younger siblings (-2.61ml [-3.85;-1.38]). Less rapid FEV1-decline was found in subjects who had attended daycare (3.98ml [2.78; 5.18]), and indicated in subjects with pets in childhood (0.97ml [-0.16; 2.09]). High maternal age and maternal smoking appeared to potentiate effects of personal smoking. The effects were independent of asthma at any age. Conclusion Early life factors predicted lung function decline decades later, suggesting that some mechanisms related lung ageing may be established early in life. Early life programming of susceptibility to adult insults could be a possible pathway that should be explored further.
  • Dratva, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of self-reported figural drawing scales against anthropometric measurements in adults
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition. - : Cambridge University Press. - 1368-9800 .- 1475-2727. ; 19:11, s. 1944-1951
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to validate figural drawing scales depicting extremely lean to extremely obese subjects to obtain proxies for BMI and waist circumference in postal surveys.DESIGN: Reported figural scales and anthropometric data from a large population-based postal survey were validated with measured anthropometric data from the same individuals by means of receiver-operating characteristic curves and a BMI prediction model.SETTING: Adult participants in a Scandinavian cohort study first recruited in 1990 and followed up twice since.SUBJECTS: Individuals aged 38-66 years with complete data for BMI (n 1580) and waist circumference (n 1017).RESULTS: Median BMI and waist circumference increased exponentially with increasing figural scales. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses showed a high predictive ability to identify individuals with BMI > 25·0 kg/m2 in both sexes. The optimal figural scales for identifying overweight or obese individuals with a correct detection rate were 4 and 5 in women, and 5 and 6 in men, respectively. The prediction model explained 74 % of the variance among women and 62 % among men. Predicted BMI differed only marginally from objectively measured BMI.CONCLUSIONS: Figural drawing scales explained a large part of the anthropometric variance in this population and showed a high predictive ability for identifying overweight/obese subjects. These figural scales can be used with confidence as proxies of BMI and waist circumference in settings where objective measures are not feasible.
  • Emilsson, Össur Ingi, et al. (författare)
  • Snoring and nocturnal reflux : association with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ERJ Open Research. - : European Respitory Society (ERS). - 2312-0541. ; 5:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: The study aim was to examine the association of snoring and nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux (nGOR) with respiratory symptoms and lung function, and if snoring and/or nGOR associated with a steeper decline in lung function. Methods: Data from the third visit of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) was used for cross-sectional analysis. Pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed, and information on sleep, nGOR and respiratory symptoms was collected (n=5715). Habitual snoring and nGOR were assessed by questionnaire reports. Pre-bronchodilator spirometry from ECRHS I, II and III (20 years follow-up) were used to analyse lung function changes by multivariate regression analysis. Results: Snoring and nGOR were independently associated with a higher prevalence of wheeze, chest tightness, breathlessness, cough and phlegm. The prevalence of any respiratory symptom was 79% in subjects with both snoring and nGOR versus 56% in those with neither (p<0.001). Subjects with both snoring and nGOR had more frequent exacerbations (adjusted prevalence 32% versus 19% among "no snoring, no nGOR", p=0.003). Snoring but not nGOR was associated with a steeper decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s over 10 years after adjusting for confounding factors (change in % predicted -5.53, versus -4.58 among "no snoring", p=0.04) and forced vital capacity (change in % predicted -1.94, versus -0.99 among "no snoring", p=0.03). Conclusions: Adults reporting both habitual snoring and nGOR had more respiratory symptoms and more frequent exacerbations of these symptoms. Habitual snoring was associated with a steeper decline in lung function over time.
  • Fuertes, Elaine, et al. (författare)
  • Leisure-time vigorous physical activity is associated with better lung function : the prospective ECRHS study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 73:4, s. 376-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We assessed associations between physical activity and lung function, and its decline, in the prospective population-based European Community Respiratory Health Survey cohort. Methods: FEV1 and FVC were measured in 3912 participants at 27-57 years and 39-67 years (mean time between examinations= 11.1 years). Physical activity frequency and duration were assessed using questionnaires and used to identify active individuals (physical activity >= 2 times and >= 1 hour per week) at each examination. Adjusted mixed linear regression models assessed associations of regular physical activity with FEV1 and FVC. Results: Physical activity frequency and duration increased over the study period. In adjusted models, active individuals at the first examination had higher FEV1 (43.6 mL (95% CI 12.0 to 75.1)) and FVC (53.9 mL (95% CI 17.8 to 89.9)) at both examinations than their non-active counterparts. These associations appeared restricted to current smokers. In the whole population, FEV1 and FVC were higher among those who changed from inactive to active during the follow-up (38.0 mL (95% CI 15.8 to 60.3) and 54.2 mL (95% CI 25.1 to 83.3), respectively) and who were consistently active, compared with those consistently non-active. No associations were found for lung function decline. Conclusion: Leisure-time vigorous physical activity was associated with higher FEV1 and FVC over a 10-year period among current smokers, but not with FEV1 and FVC decline.
  • Gómez Real, Francisco, et al. (författare)
  • Menstrual irregularity and asthma and lung function
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 120:3, s. 557-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Oligomenorrhea was associated with more asthma (Respiratory Health in Northern Europe study), but a possible association with lung function has not been investigated previously. Objective: To investigate whether oligomenorrhea was related to lung function and asthma, and whether body mass index and physical activity modified associations. Methods: Women age 28 to 44 years (n = 1631) participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey were included. Women who were taking exogenous sex hormones, were pregnant, or had recently given birth were excluded. Results: Long or irregular menstrual cycles were reported by 313 women (19%). Oligomenorrhea was significantly associated with more asthma symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.40), allergic asthma (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.43-4.23), and lower forced vital capacity (FVC; adjusted difference, 63 mL; 95% CI, -124 to -1). When excluding women using asthma medication, very lean women, or women exercising daily, these associations remained significant. Effects of oligomenorrhea were additive to those of body mass index (BMI) on asthma and FVC. Asthma symptoms increased significantly with BMI. FVC and FEV1 increased with BMI until 25 kg/m2 and thereafter decreased with increasing BMI. Excluding women exercising daily, asthma symptoms increased significantly with decreasing physical activity (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.001-1.19) per category of physical activity) independently of oligomenorrhea. Among women exercising daily, oligomenorrhea predicted very high risk for asthma symptoms (OR, 12.6; 95% CI, 3.7-43). Conclusion: Women with oligomenorrhea have reduced lung function and more asthma, particularly allergic asthma, independent of BMI and physical activity. Airways pathology may have not only a hormonal but also a metabolic component. Clinical implications: Women with oligomenorrhea should be investigated with regard to asthma and lung function. Underlying metabolic disturbance should be considered in asthma.
  • Johannessen, Ane, et al. (författare)
  • Longterm follow-up in European respiratory health studies : patterns and implications
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466 .- 1471-2466. ; 14, s. 63-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Selection bias is a systematic error in epidemiologic studies that may seriously distort true measures of associations between exposure and disease. Observational studies are highly susceptible to selection bias, and researchers should therefore always examine to what extent selection bias may be present in their material and what characterizes the bias in their material. In the present study we examined long-term participation and consequences of loss to follow-up in the studies Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE), Italian centers of European Community Respiratory Health Survey (I-ECRHS), and the Italian Study on Asthma in Young Adults (ISAYA). METHODS: Logistic regression identified predictors for follow-up participation. Baseline prevalence of 9 respiratory symptoms (asthma attack, asthma medication, combined variable with asthma attack and/or asthma medication, wheeze, rhinitis, wheeze with dyspnea, wheeze without cold, waking with chest tightness, waking with dyspnea) and 9 exposure-outcome associations (predictors sex, age and smoking; outcomes wheeze, asthma and rhinitis) were compared between all baseline participants and long-term participants. Bias was measured as ratios of relative frequencies and ratios of odds ratios (ROR). RESULTS: Follow-up response rates after 10 years were 75% in RHINE, 64% in I-ECRHS and 53% in ISAYA. After 20 years of follow-up, response was 53% in RHINE and 49% in I-ECRHS. Female sex predicted long-term participation (in RHINE OR (95%CI) 1.30(1.22, 1.38); in I-ECRHS 1.29 (1.11, 1.50); and in ISAYA 1.42 (1.25, 1.61)), as did increasing age. Baseline prevalence of respiratory symptoms were lower among long-term participants (relative deviations compared to total baseline population 0-15% (RHINE), 0-48% (I-ECRHS), 3-20% (ISAYA)), except rhinitis which had a slightly higher prevalence. Most exposure-outcome associations did not differ between long-term participants and all baseline participants, except lower OR for rhinitis among ISAYA long-term participating smokers (relative deviation 17% (smokers) and 44% (10-20 pack years)). CONCLUSIONS: We found comparable patterns of long-term participation and loss to follow-up in RHINE, I-ECRHS and ISAYA. Baseline prevalence estimates for long-term participants were slightly lower than for the total baseline population, while exposure-outcome associations were mainly unchanged by loss to follow-up.
  • Khomich, Maryia, et al. (författare)
  • Association between lipid-A-producing oral bacteria of different potency and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in a Norwegian population-based adult cohort
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Translational Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1479-5876 .- 1479-5876. ; 21:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Lipid A is the primary immunostimulatory part of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. The inflammatory response of LPS varies and depends upon the number of acyl chains and phosphate groups in lipid A which is specific for a bacterial species or strain. Traditional LPS quantification assays cannot distinguish between the acylation degree of lipid A molecules, and therefore little is known about how bacteria with different inflammation-inducing potencies affect fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). We aimed to explore the association between pro-inflammatory hexa- and less inflammatory penta-acylated LPS-producing oral bacteria and FeNO as a marker of airway inflammation.METHODS: We used data from a population-based adult cohort from Norway (n = 477), a study center of the RHINESSA multi-center generation study. We applied statistical methods on the bacterial community- (prediction with MiRKAT) and genus-level (differential abundance analysis with ANCOM-BC) to investigate the association between the oral microbiota composition and FeNO.RESULTS: We found the overall composition to be significantly associated with increasing FeNO levels independent of covariate adjustment, and abundances of 27 bacterial genera to differ in individuals with high FeNO vs. low FeNO levels. Hexa- and penta-acylated LPS producers made up 2.4% and 40.8% of the oral bacterial genera, respectively. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity within hexa- and penta-acylated LPS-producing oral bacteria was associated with increasing FeNO levels independent of covariate adjustment. A few single penta-acylated LPS producers were more abundant in individuals with low FeNO vs. high FeNO, while hexa-acylated LPS producers were found not to be enriched.CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based adult cohort, FeNO was observed to be associated with the overall oral bacterial community composition. The effect of hexa- and penta-acylated LPS-producing oral bacteria was overall significant when focusing on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity within each of the two communities and FeNO levels, but only penta-acylated LPS producers appeared to be reduced or absent in individuals with high FeNO. It is likely that the pro-inflammatory effect of hexa-acylated LPS producers is counteracted by the dominance of the more abundant penta-acylated LPS producers in this population-based adult cohort involving mainly healthy individuals.
  • Kirkeleit, Jorunn, et al. (författare)
  • Early life origins of lung ageing : A study of lung function decline the ECRHS and NFBC1966 cohorts
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : ERS Publications. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: To determine whether early life factors associated with poor lung growth and submaximal attained lung function contribute to accelerated lung function decline later in life.Methods: Participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) with lung function measured in a first (n=10,971), second (n=7,981) and third wave (n=4,849), aged 20 – 68 years, were included. Mean annual decline in maximum forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were main outcomes. Information on early life factors was provided by standardized interviews and questionnaires. We estimated the effect of early life factors including maternal age, parental smoking, season of birth, parental asthma and respiratory infections using mixed effects models, adjusted for age, FEV1 and FVC at baseline, height, and smoking habits.Results: Decline in FEV1 was accelerated in women born of a mother with asthma (β = 2.4 ml; 95% CI 0.6-4.3) or who smoked during pregnancy (1.9; 0.2-3.6), and in men having a father with asthma (3.5; 0.2-6.9) or born by Cesarean section (7.9; 1.6-14.2). Accelerated decline in FVC was associated with paternal asthma in men (4.3; 0.1-8.5) and early menarche (<12 years) in women (2.4; 0.4-4.4). No statistically significant effect on lung function decline was found for other investigated early life factors.Conclusion: Early life risk factors contribute to an accelerated lung function decline with ageing, following sex-specific patterns. Decline in FEV1 versus FVC showed slightly different patterns.
  • Kisiel, Marta A., 1984-, et al. (författare)
  • Association between abdominal and general obesity and respiratory symptoms, asthma and COPD : Results from the RHINE study
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - : Elsevier. - 0954-6111 .- 1532-3064. ; 211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IntroductionPrevious studies on the association between abdominal and general obesity and respiratory disease have provided conflicting results.Aims and objectivesWe aimed to explore the associations of abdominal obesity with respiratory symptoms, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease independently from general obesity in women and men.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was based on the Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III questionnaire (n = 12 290) conducted in 2010–2012. Abdominal obesity was self-measured waist circumference using a sex-specific standard cut-off point: ≥102 cm in males and ≥88 cm in females. General obesity was defined as self-reported BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2.ResultsThere were 4261 subjects (63% women) with abdominal obesity and 1837 subjects (50% women) with general obesity. Both abdominal and general obesity was independent of each other and associated with respiratory symptoms (odds ratio (OR) from 1.25 to 2.00)). Asthma was significantly associated with abdominal and general obesity in women, OR (95% CI) 1.56 (1.30–1.87) and 1.95 (1.56–2.43), respectively, but not in men, OR 1.22 (0.97–3.17) and 1.28 (0.97–1.68) respectively. A similar sex difference was found for self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.ConclusionsGeneral and abdominal obesity were independent factors associated with respiratory symptoms in adults. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were independently linked to abdominal and general obesity in women but not men.
  • Leynaert, Benedicte, et al. (författare)
  • Gender differences in prevalence, diagnosis and incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma : a population-based cohort
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - : BMJ. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 67:7, s. 625-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Although women with severe non-allergic asthma may represent a substantial proportion of adults with asthma in clinical practice, gender differences in the incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma have been little investigated in the general population. Methods Gender differences in asthma prevalence, reported diagnosis and incidence were investigated in 9091 men and women randomly selected from the general population and followed up after 8-10 years as part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The protocol included assessment of bronchial responsiveness, IgE specific to four common allergens and skin tests to nine allergens. Results Asthma was 20% more frequent in women than in men over the age of 35 years. Possible under-diagnosis of asthma appeared to be particularly frequent among non-atopic individuals, but was as frequent in women as in men. The follow-up of subjects without asthma at baseline showed a higher incidence of asthma in women than in men (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.40 to 2.68), which was not explained by differences in smoking, obesity or lung function. More than 60% of women and 30% of men with new-onset asthma were non-atopic. The incidence of non-allergic asthma was higher in women than in men throughout all the reproductive years (HR 3.51; 95% CI 2.21 to 5.58), whereas no gender difference was observed for the incidence of allergic asthma. Conclusions This study shows that female sex is an independent risk factor for non-allergic asthma, and stresses the need for more careful assessment of possible non-allergic asthma in clinical practice, in men and women.
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