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61.
  • Ademuyiwa, Adesoji O., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of morbidity and mortality following emergency abdominal surgery in children in low-income and middle-income countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Global Health. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7908. ; 1:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Child health is a key priority on the global health agenda, yet the provision of essential and emergency surgery in children is patchy in resource-poor regions. This study was aimed to determine the mortality risk for emergency abdominal paediatric surgery in low-income countries globally.Methods: Multicentre, international, prospective, cohort study. Self-selected surgical units performing emergency abdominal surgery submitted prespecified data for consecutive children aged <16 years during a 2-week period between July and December 2014. The United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) was used to stratify countries. The main outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality, analysed by multilevel logistic regression.Results: This study included 1409 patients from 253 centres in 43 countries; 282 children were under 2 years of age. Among them, 265 (18.8%) were from low-HDI, 450 (31.9%) from middle-HDI and 694 (49.3%) from high-HDI countries. The most common operations performed were appendectomy, small bowel resection, pyloromyotomy and correction of intussusception. After adjustment for patient and hospital risk factors, child mortality at 30 days was significantly higher in low-HDI (adjusted OR 7.14 (95% CI 2.52 to 20.23), p<0.001) and middle-HDI (4.42 (1.44 to 13.56), p=0.009) countries compared with high-HDI countries, translating to 40 excess deaths per 1000 procedures performed.Conclusions: Adjusted mortality in children following emergency abdominal surgery may be as high as 7 times greater in low-HDI and middle-HDI countries compared with high-HDI countries. Effective provision of emergency essential surgery should be a key priority for global child health agendas.
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62.
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63.
  • Akbarian, S, et al. (författare)
  • The PsychENCODE project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature neuroscience. - 1546-1726. ; 18:12, s. 1707-1712
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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64.
  • Bauer, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of psychiatric research. - 1879-1379. ; 113, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many international studies, rates of completed suicide and suicide attempts have a seasonal pattern that peaks in spring or summer. This exploratory study investigated the association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempt in patients with bipolar I disorder. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area on Earth. Data were collected previously from 5536 patients with bipolar I disorder at 50 collection sites in 32 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Suicide related data were available for 3365 patients from 310 onset locations in 51 countries. 1047 (31.1%) had a history of suicide attempt. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempt and the ratio of mean winter solar insolation/mean summer solar insolation. This ratio is smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. This ratio is largest near the equator where there is relatively little variation in the insolation over the year. Other variables in the model that were positively associated with suicide attempt were being female, a history of alcohol or substance abuse, and being in a younger birth cohort. Living in a country with a state-sponsored religion decreased the association. (All estimated coefficients p < 0.01). In summary, living in locations with large changes in solar insolation between winter and summer may be associated with increased suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of the impacts of solar insolation on the course of bipolar disorder is needed.
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65.
  • Bauer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Solar insolation in springtime influences age of onset of bipolar I disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 0001-690X. ; 136:6, s. 571-582
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To confirm prior findings that the larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation in springtime, the younger the age of onset of bipolar disorder. Method: Data were collected from 5536 patients at 50 sites in 32 countries on six continents. Onset occurred at 456 locations in 57 countries. Variables included solar insolation, birth-cohort, family history, polarity of first episode and country physician density. Results: There was a significant, inverse association between the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the onset location, and the age of onset. This effect was reduced in those without a family history of mood disorders and with a first episode of mania rather than depression. The maximum monthly increase occurred in springtime. The youngest birth-cohort had the youngest age of onset. All prior relationships were confirmed using both the entire sample, and only the youngest birth-cohort (all estimated coefficients P < 0.001). Conclusion: A large increase in springtime solar insolation may impact the onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. Recent societal changes that affect light exposure (LED lighting, mobile devices backlit with LEDs) may influence adaptability to a springtime circadian challenge.
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66.
  • Bera, Anup Kumar, et al. (författare)
  • Morphology induced large magnetic anisotropy in obliquely grown nanostructured thin film on nanopatterned substrate
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Applied Surface Science. - : Elsevier BV. - 0169-4332 .- 1873-5584. ; 581
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The artificial tailoring of magnetic anisotropy by manipulating surface and interface morphology is attracting widespread interest for its application in spintronic and magnetic memory devices. Here oblique angle deposition on a nanopatterned rippled substrate is presented as a novel route of inducing large in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) in magnetic thin films. For this purpose, Cobalt films and rippled SiO2 substrates have been taken as a model system for the present study. Here, nanopatterned substrates are prepared by low energy ion beam erosion (IBE), above which films are deposited obliquely along and normal to the ripple directions. A clear anisotropy in the growth behavior has been observed due to the inhomogeneous in-plane organization of adatoms in the form of columns. The increased shadowing effect in the films deposited obliquely normal to the direction of the ripple patterns causes preferential coalescence of the columns along the substrate ripples, resulting in stronger in-plane UMA in the film. This peculiarity in magnetic behavior is addressed by considering the morphological anisotropy governed by enhanced shadowing effect, the shape anisotropy and the dipolar interactions among the magnetostatically coupled ripple structure.
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67.
  • Bhowal, S., et al. (författare)
  • Development of collective structures over noncollective excitations in Nd-139
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C (Nuclear Physics). - : American Physical Society. - 0556-2813. ; 84:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-spin states in Nd-139 were investigated using the reaction Zr-96(Ca-48,5n) at a beam energy of 195 MeV and gamma-ray coincidences were acquired with the Euroball spectrometer. Apart from several dipole bands at medium excitation energy, three quadrupole bands have been observed at high spin. Linking transitions connecting two of the high-spin bands to low-energy states have been observed. Calculations based on the cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky formalism have been used to assign configurations for the high-spin quadrupole bands.
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68.
  • Binzel, R.P., et al. (författare)
  • Compositional Distributions and Evolutionary Processes for the Near-Earth Object Population : Results from the MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS)
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962). - : Elsevier. - 0019-1035 .- 1090-2643. ; 324, s. 41-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Advancing technology in near-infrared instrumentation and dedicated planetary telescope facilities have enabled nearly two decades of reconnoitering the spectral properties for near-Earth objects (NEOs). We report measured spectral properties for more than 1000 NEOs, representing >5 percent of the currently discovered population. Thermal flux detected below 2.5 microns allows us to make albedo estimates for nearly 50 objects, including two comets. Additional spectral data are reported for more than 350 Mars-crossing asteroids. Most of these measurements were achieved through a collaboration between researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Hawaii, with full cooperation of the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea. We call this project the MIT-Hawaii Near-Earth Object Spectroscopic Survey (MITHNEOS; myth-neos). While MITHNEOS has continuously released all spectral data for immediate use by the scientific community, our objectives for this paper are to: (1) detail the methods and limits of the survey data, (2) formally present a compilation of results including their taxonomic classification within a single internally consistent framework, (3) perform a preliminary analysis on the overall population characteristics with a concentration toward deducing key physical processes and identifying their source region for escaping the main belt. Augmenting our newly published measurements are the previously published results from the broad NEO community, including many results graciously shared by colleagues prior to formal publication. With this collective data set, we find the near-Earth population matches the diversity of the main-belt, with all main-belt taxonomic classes represented in our sample. Potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) as well as the subset of mission accessible asteroids (ΔV≤ 7 km/s) both appear to be a representative mix of the overall NEO population, consistent with strong dynamical mixing for the population that interacts most closely with Earth. Mars crossers, however, are less diverse and appear to more closely match the inner belt population from where they have more recently diffused. The fractional distributions of major taxonomic classes (60% S, 20% C, 20% other) appear remarkably constant over two orders of magnitude in size (10 km to 100 m), which is eight orders of magnitude in mass, though we note unaccounted bias effects enter into our statistics below about 500m. Given the range of surface ages, including possible refreshment by planetary encounters, we are able to identify a very specific space weathering vector tracing the transition from Q- to Sq- to S-types that follows the natural dispersion for asteroid spectra mapped into principal component space. We also are able to interpret a shock darkening vector that may account for some objects having featureless spectra. Space weathering effects for C-types are complex; these results are described separately by Lantz, Binzel, DeMeo. (2018, Icarus 302, 10-17). Independent correlation of dynamical models with taxonomic classes map the escape zones for NEOs to main-belt regions consistent with well established heliocentric compositional gradients. We push beyond taxonomy to interpret our visible plus near-infrared spectra in terms of the olivine and pyroxene mineralogy consistent with the H, L, and LL classes of ordinary chondrites meteorites. Correlating meteorite interpretations with dynamical escape region models shows a preference for LL chondrites to arrive from the ν6 resonance and H chondrites to have a preferential signature from the mid-belt region (3:1 resonance). L chondrites show some preference toward the outer belt, but not at a significant level. We define a Space Weathering Parameter as a continuous variable and find evidence for step-wise changes in space weathering properties across different planet crossing zones in the inner solar system. Overall we hypothesize the relative roles of planetary encounters, YORP spin-up, and thermal cycling across the inner solar system.
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69.
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