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  • Huffman, Mark D, et al. (författare)
  • A cross-sectional study of the microeconomic impact of cardiovascular disease hospitalization in four low- and middle-income countries.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 6:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To estimate individual and household economic impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in selected low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence on the microeconomic consequences of CVD in LMIC is scarce.METHODS AND FINDINGS: We surveyed 1,657 recently hospitalized CVD patients (66% male; mean age 55.8 years) from Argentina, China, India, and Tanzania to evaluate the microeconomic and functional/productivity impact of CVD hospitalization. Respondents were stratified into three income groups. Median out-of-pocket expenditures for CVD treatment over 15 month follow-up ranged from 354 international dollars (2007 INT$, Tanzania, low-income) to INT$2,917 (India, high-income). Catastrophic health spending (CHS) was present in >50% of respondents in China, India, and Tanzania. Distress financing (DF) and lost income were more common in low-income respondents. After adjustment, lack of health insurance was associated with CHS in Argentina (OR 4.73 [2.56, 8.76], India (OR 3.93 [2.23, 6.90], and Tanzania (OR 3.68 [1.86, 7.26] with a marginal association in China (OR 2.05 [0.82, 5.11]). These economic effects were accompanied by substantial decreases in individual functional health and productivity.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in selected LMIC bear significant financial burdens following CVD hospitalization, yet with substantial variation across and within countries. Lack of insurance may drive much of the financial stress of CVD in LMIC patients and their families.
  • Islavath, Nanaji, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of hole-transporting materials on the photovoltaic performance and stability of all-ambient-processed perovskite solar cells
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Energy Chemistry. - 2095-4956. ; 26:3, s. 584-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High-efficiency perovskite solar cells (PSCs) reported hitherto have been mostly prepared in a moisture and oxygen-free glove-box atmosphere, which hampers upscaling and real-time performance assessment of this exciting photovoltaic technology. In this work, we have systematically studied the feasibility of all-ambient-processing of PSCs and evaluated their photovoltaic performance. It has been shown that phase-pure crystalline tetragonal MAPbI3 perovskite films are instantly formed in ambient air at room temperature by a two-step spin coating process, undermining the need for dry atmosphere and post-annealing. All-ambient-processed PSCs with a configuration of FTO/TiO2/MAPbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au achieve open-circuit voltage (990 mV) and short-circuit current density (20.31 mA/cm2) comparable to those of best reported glove-box processed devices. Nevertheless, device power conversion efficiency is still constrained at 5% by the unusually low fill-factor of 0.25. Dark current–voltage characteristics reveal poor conductivity of hole-transporting layer caused by lack of oxidized spiro-OMeTAD species, resulting in high series-resistance and decreased fill-factor. The study also establishes that the above limitations can be readily overcome by employing an inorganic p-type semiconductor, copper thiocyanate, as ambient-processable hole-transporting layer to yield a fill-factor of 0.54 and a power conversion efficiency of 7.19%. The present findings can have important implications in industrially viable fabrication of large-area PSCs.The poor conductivity of ambient-processed spiro-OMeTAD HTM layer caused by lack of oxidation is identified as a major performance limiting factor and successfully overcome by replacing with stable inorganic CuSCN.
  • Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan Reddy, et al. (författare)
  • Glucose starvation-mediated inhibition of salinomycin induced autophagy amplifies cancer cell specific cell death
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: OncoTarget. - : IMPACT JOURNALS LLC. - 1949-2553 .- 1949-2553. ; 6:12, s. 10134-10145
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Salinomycin has been used as treatment for malignant tumors in a small number of humans, causing far less side effects than standard chemotherapy. Several studies show that Salinomycin targets cancer-initiating cells (cancer stem cells, or CSC) resistant to conventional therapies. Numerous studies show that Salinomycin not only reduces tumor volume, but also decreases tumor recurrence when used as an adjuvant to standard treatments. In this study we show that starvation triggered different stress responses in cancer cells and primary normal cells, which further improved the preferential targeting of cancer cells by Salinomycin. Our in vitro studies further demonstrate that the combined use of 2-Fluoro 2-deoxy D-glucose, or 2-deoxy D-glucose with Salinomycin is lethal in cancer cells while the use of Oxamate does not improve cell death-inducing properties of Salinomycin. Furthermore, we show that treatment of cancer cells with Salinomycin under starvation conditions not only increases the apoptotic caspase activity, but also diminishes the protective autophagy normally triggered by the treatment with Salinomycin alone. Thus, this study underlines the potential use of Salinomycin as a cancer treatment, possibly in combination with short-term starvation or starvation-mimicking pharmacologic intervention.
  • Kozyrev, Sergey, et al. (författare)
  • Structural insertion/deletion variation in IRF5 is associated with a risk haplotype and defines the precise IRF5 isoforms expressed in systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Arthritis and Rheumatism. - 0004-3591 .- 1529-0131. ; 56:4, s. 1234-1241
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To determine whether specific isoforms of IRF5 are transcribed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who have risk genotypes in the exon 1B donor splice site at single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) no. rs2004640. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from SLE patients and healthy controls from Argentina, Spain, and Germany and from trio families from Spain and Denmark. A reporter assay was used to investigate the role of SNP no. rs2004640. IRF5 expression in relation to the genotypes of functional SNPs was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing and genotyping of the IRF5 gene was performed. Results. Sequencing of complementary DNA from individuals with different genotypes showed 4 basic isoforms transcribed from all 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTRs), suggesting no preferential isoform transcription based on rs2004640 genotypes. Analysis of translation efficiency showed that exon 1A was the most efficient in initiating protein synthesis. We identified a novel polymorphic insertion/deletion that defines the pattern of expression of isoforms of IRF5. The insertion consists of 4 repeats in exon 6 affecting the protein interaction domain. The insertion segregates in the risk haplotype with the high expression allele of a poly(A) site SNP no. rs10954213 and the exon 1B donor splice allele of the 5′-UTR SNP no. rs2004640. The poly(A) polymorphism correlated with levels of IRF5 in cells stimulated with interferon-α. The SNP most strongly associated with SLE was SNP no. rs2070197 (P = 5.2 × 10 -11), which is a proxy of the risk haplotype, but does not appear to be functional. Conclusion. None of the functional variants investigated in this study is strongly associated with SLE, with the exception of the exon 1B donor splice site, and its functional importance appears to be small. Our results suggest that there may be other functional polymorphisms, yet to be identified, in IRF5. We did not observe evidence of epistatic interaction between the functional SNPs.
  • Kumar, Saurabh, et al. (författare)
  • Issues and challenges with logistics of rail maintenance
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of Abstracts and Papers of The Second International Intelligent Logistics Systems Conference 2006. - : Australian Society for Operations Research. - 095962919X ; , s. 16.1-16.9
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Detection and rectification of rail defects are major issues for all rail players around the world. Some of the defects include worn out rails, weld problems, internal defects, corrugations and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) intiated problems such as surface cracks, head checks, squats spalling and shelling. There are challenges to the infrastructure maintenance people with logistics for effective inspection and cost effective recitification decisions. If these issues are addressed properly then inspection and rectification decisions can reduce potential risk of rail breaks and derailments. Inspite of continous efforts by all rail operators around the world to reduce costs, a substantial amount of railway budget is spent on inspection and maintenance of rails. These costs are further increased by inaccurate logistics decisions related to maintenance and inspection personnel, equipment and planning. This paper addresses the issues and challenges related to logistics of rail maintenance with an aim to reduce costs and risk related to rail operations. 
  • Kumar, S., et al. (författare)
  • Microstructure and performance of cold sprayed Al-SiC composite coatings with high fraction of particulates
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology. - 0257-8972 .- 1879-3347. ; 318, s. 62-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Deposition of metal matrix composites (MMCs) through thermal spraying has traditionally presented problems associated with heterogeneity, porosity, and low wettability of particulates with matrix. Cold spray is a very rapid deposition process which is suitable for depositing a variety of ductile materials without any thermal degradation. Many researchers have attempted to deposit Al-SiC MMCs with 10–20% SiC using this technique. In the present study, three different powder compositions (FAl-23SiC, FAl-46SiC, FAl-71SiC) obtained by mixing Al and SiC powders were cold sprayed on aluminum substrates. The volume percentage and the average size of the SiC particulates in the cold sprayed coatings were estimated and found to be 23%, 47% and 52% for FAl-23SiC, FAl-46SiC and FAl-71SiC feedstocks, respectively. Effects of percentage and size of the SiC particulate retained in the composite coatings on the mechanical properties and the sliding wear performance were studied at different sliding conditions in the as-sprayed and heat treated conditions. The results were comprehensively analyzed and found to correlate well with the microstructure of the coatings.
  • Linga-Reddy, M. V. Prasad, et al. (författare)
  • A polymorphic variant in the MHC2TA gene is not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Tissue Antigens. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-2815 .- 1399-0039. ; 70:5, s. 412-414
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator (MHC2TA) gene encoding the class II transactivator have been associated with multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and myocardial infarction in the Swedish population. We used a case-control approach to investigate the prevalence of a relevant variant in Swedish systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cohorts to determine whether SLE shares the same MHC2TA susceptibility allele as the other diseases. No differences were observed between cases and control subjects at either the allele or genotype levels. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found when comparing different clinical and serological SLE phenotypes. This particular polymorphism rs3087456 of the MHC2TA gene does not appear to influence genetic susceptibility to SLE in the Swedish population. We conclude that our data support neither allelic nor genotype association between the MHC2TA SNP and SLE.
  • Linga Reddy, M. V. Prasad, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic association of IRF5 with SLE in Mexicans : higher frequency of the risk haplotype and its homozygozity than Europeans
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 121:6, s. 721-727
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The IRF5 gene was found to be strongly associated with SLE. We identified two functional polymorphisms and recently an insertion/deletion together with a tag SNP defining the risk haplotype in individuals of European ancestry. We now analyzed sets of Mexican patients with SLE. Three polymorphisms in the IRF5 gene were genotyped in two sets of Mexican individuals with SLE and controls as well as in families including a set of pediatric SLE patients. A set of healthy Mexican Indians was also typed. Genetic association with SLE was found for all three polymorphisms. The genetic association was very strong in the case–control analysis in both sets (for SNP rs2070197, combined P = 1.26 × 10−21) and in families (combined P = 0.000004). Compared to healthy individuals with European ancestry, the frequency of the risk haplotype in healthy Mexican individuals was significantly higher and even higher in the healthy Mexican Indian group. Further, a much higher frequency of the risk haplotype and of individual homozygote for it was found among Mexican SLE patients. The significantly higher frequency of homozygote individuals for the risk haplotype among Mexican SLE patients could be the result of genetic admixture, and suggests the possibility that IRF5 could be involved in the more active disease and organ involvement known to occur among Mexican SLE patients.
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