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  • Migueles, JH, et al. (författare)
  • Equivalency of four research-grade movement sensors to assess movement behaviors and its implications for population surveillance
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 2045-2322. ; 12:1, s. 5525-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • the benefits of physical activity (PA) and sleep for health, accurate and objective population-based surveillance is important. Monitor-based surveillance has potential, but the main challenge is the need for replicable outcomes from different monitors. This study investigated the agreement of movement behavior outcomes assessed with four research-grade activity monitors (i.e., Movisens Move4, ActiGraph GT3X+, GENEActiv, and Axivity AX3) in adults. Twenty-three participants wore four monitors on the non-dominant wrist simultaneously for seven days. Open-source software (GGIR) was used to estimate the daily time in sedentary, light, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and sleep (movement behaviors). The prevalence of participants meeting the PA and sleep recommendations were calculated from each monitor’s data. Outcomes were deemed equivalent between monitors if the absolute standardized difference and its 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) fell within ± 0.2 standard deviations (SD) of the mean of the differences. The participants were mostly men (n = 14, 61%) and aged 36 (SD = 14) years. Pairwise confusion matrices showed that 83–87% of the daily time was equally classified into the movement categories by the different pairs of monitors. The between-monitor difference in MVPA ranged from 1 (CI95%: − 6, 7) to 8 (CI95%: 1, 15) min/day. Most of the PA and sleep metrics could be considered equivalent. The prevalence of participants meeting the PA and the sleep guidelines was 100% consistent across monitors (22 and 5 participants out of the 23, respectively). Our findings indicate that the various research-grade activity monitors investigated show high inter-instrument reliability with respect to sedentary, PA and sleep-related estimates when their raw data are processed in an identical manner. These findings may have important implications for advancement towards monitor-based PA and sleep surveillance systems.
  • O'Reilly, Enya, et al. (författare)
  • An assessment of relative habitat use as a metric for species’ habitat association and degree of specialization
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Ecological Indicators. - : Elsevier. - 1470-160X. ; 135
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to understand species’ sensitivity to habitat change, we must correctly determine if a species is associated with a habitat or not, and if it is associated, its degree of specialization for that habitat. However, definitions of species’ habitat association and specialization are often static, categorical classifications that coarsely define species as either habitat specialists or generalists and can fail to account for potential temporal or spatial differences in association or specialization. In contrast, quantitative metrics can provide a more nuanced assessment, defining species’ habitat associations and specialization along a continuous scale and accommodate for temporal or spatial variation, but these approaches are less widely used. Here we explore relative habitat use (RHU) as a metric for quantifying species’ association with and degree of specialization for different habitat types. RHU determines the extent of a species’ association with a given habitat by comparing its abundance in that habitat relative to its mean abundance across all other habitats. Using monitoring data for breeding birds across Europe from 1998 to 2017; we calculate RHU scores for 246 species for five habitat types and compared them to the literature-based classifications of their association with and specialization for each of these habitats. We also explored the temporal variation in species’ RHU scores for each habitat and assessed how this varied according to association and degree of specialization. In general, species’ RHU and literature-derived classifications were well aligned, as RHU scores for a given habitat increased in line with reported association and specialization. In addition, temporal variation in RHU scores were influenced by association and degree of specialization, with lower scores for those associated with, and those more specialized to, a given habitat. As a continuous metric, RHU allows a detailed assessment of species’ association with and degree of specialization for different habitats that can be tailored to specific temporal and/or spatial requirements. It has the potential to be a valuable tool for identifying indicator species and in supporting the design, implementation and monitoring of conservation management actions.
  • Penninx, Brenda W. J. H., et al. (författare)
  • Anxiety disorders
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 397:10277, s. 914-927
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anxiety disorders form the most common group of mental disorders and generally start before or in early adulthood. Core features include excessive fear and anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats that are persistent and impairing. Anxiety disorders involve dysfunction in brain circuits that respond to danger. Risk for anxiety disorders is influenced by genetic factors, environmental factors, and their epigenetic relations. Anxiety disorders are often comorbid with one another and with other mental disorders, especially depression, as well as with somatic disorders. Such comorbidity generally signifies more severe symptoms, greater clinical burden, and greater treatment difficulty. Reducing the large burden of disease from anxiety disorders in individuals and worldwide can be best achieved by timely, accurate disease detection and adequate treatment administration, scaling up of treatments when needed. Evidence-based psychotherapy (particularly cognitive behavioural therapy) and psychoactive medications (particularly serotonergic compounds) are both effective, facilitating patients' choices in therapeutic decisions. Although promising, no enduring preventive measures are available, and, along with frequent therapy resistance, clinical needs remain unaddressed. Ongoing research efforts tackle these problems, and future efforts should seek individualised, more effective approaches for treatment with precision medicine.
  • Reininghaus, Eva Z, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes associated with different vaccines in individuals with bipolar disorder and impact on the current COVID-19 pandemic- a systematic review.
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology. - : Elsevier BV. - 1873-7862. ; 54, s. 90-99
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bipolar disorder (BD) might be associated with higher infection rates of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which in turn could result in worsening the clinical course and outcome. This may be due to a high prevalence of somatic comorbidities and an increased risk of delays in and poorer treatment of somatic disease in patients with severe mental illness in general. Vaccination is the most important public health intervention to tackle the ongoing pandemic. We undertook a systematic review regarding the data on vaccinations in individuals with BD. Proportion of prevalence rates, efficacy and specific side effects of vaccinations and in individuals with BD were searched. Results show that only five studies have investigated vaccinations in individuals with BD, which substantially limits the interpretation of overall findings. Studies on antibody production after vaccinations in BD are very limited and results are inconsistent. Also, the evidence-based science on side effects of vaccinations in individuals with BD so far is poor.
  • Schiele, Miriam A., et al. (författare)
  • Therapygenetic effects of 5-HTTLPR on cognitive-behavioral therapy in anxiety disorders : A meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0924-977X .- 1873-7862. ; 44, s. 105-120
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is a recurring debate on the role of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in the moderation of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in anxiety disorders. Results, however, are still inconclusive. We here aim to perform a meta-analysis on the role of 5-HTTLPR in the moderation of CBT outcome in anxiety disorders. We investigated both categorical (symptom reduction of at least 50%) and dimensional outcomes from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up. Original data were obtained from ten independent samples (including three unpublished samples) with a total of 2,195 patients with primary anxiety disorder. No significant effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype on categorical or dimensional outcomes at post and follow-up were detected. We conclude that current evidence does not support the hypothesis of 5-HTTLPR as a moderator of treatment outcome for CBT in anxiety disorders. Future research should address whether other factors such as long-term changes or epigenetic processes may explain further variance in these complex gene-environment interactions and molecular-genetic pathways that may confer behavioral change following psychotherapy.
  • van Hulzen, Kimm J E, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Overlap Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Bipolar Disorder: Evidence From Genome-wide Association Study Meta-analysis.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Biological psychiatry. - : Elsevier BV. - 1873-2402 .- 0006-3223. ; 82:9, s. 634-641
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) are frequently co-occurring and highly heritable mental health conditions. We hypothesized that BPD cases with an early age of onset (≤21 years old) would be particularly likely to show genetic covariation with ADHD.Genome-wide association study data were available for 4609 individuals with ADHD, 9650 individuals with BPD (5167 thereof with early-onset BPD), and 21,363 typically developing controls. We conducted a cross-disorder genome-wide association study meta-analysis to identify whether the observed comorbidity between ADHD and BPD could be due to shared genetic risks.We found a significant single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD in the full and age-restricted samples (rGfull = .64, p = 3.13 × 10(-14); rGrestricted = .71, p = 4.09 × 10(-16)). The meta-analysis between the full BPD sample identified two genome-wide significant (prs7089973 = 2.47 × 10(-8); prs11756438 = 4.36 × 10(-8)) regions located on chromosomes 6 (CEP85L) and 10 (TAF9BP2). Restricting the analyses to BPD cases with an early onset yielded one genome-wide significant association (prs58502974 = 2.11 × 10(-8)) on chromosome 5 in the ADCY2 gene. Additional nominally significant regions identified contained known expression quantitative trait loci with putative functional consequences for NT5DC1, NT5DC2, and CACNB3 expression, whereas functional predictions implicated ABLIM1 as an allele-specific expressed gene in neuronal tissue.The single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlation between ADHD and BPD is substantial, significant, and consistent with the existence of genetic overlap between ADHD and BPD, with potential differential genetic mechanisms involved in early and later BPD onset.
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