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  • Charalampous, P., et al. (författare)
  • Methodological considerations in injury burden of disease studies across Europe: a systematic literature review
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Bmc Public Health. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2458. ; 22:1
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Calculating the disease burden due to injury is complex, as it requires many methodological choices. Until now, an overview of the methodological design choices that have been made in burden of disease (BoD) studies in injury populations is not available. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify existing injury BoD studies undertaken across Europe and to comprehensively review the methodological design choices and assumption parameters that have been made to calculate years of life lost (YLL) and years lived with disability (YLD) in these studies. Methods We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, and Web of Science, and the grey literature supplemented by handsearching, for BoD studies. We included injury BoD studies that quantified the BoD expressed in YLL, YLD, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) in countries within the European Region between early-1990 and mid-2021. Results We retrieved 2,914 results of which 48 performed an injury-specific BoD assessment. Single-country independent and Global Burden of Disease (GBD)-linked injury BoD studies were performed in 11 European countries. Approximately 79% of injury BoD studies reported the BoD by external cause-of-injury. Most independent studies used the incidence-based approach to calculate YLDs. About half of the injury disease burden studies applied disability weights (DWs) developed by the GBD study. Almost all independent injury studies have determined YLL using national life tables. Conclusions Considerable methodological variation across independent injury BoD assessments was observed; differences were mainly apparent in the design choices and assumption parameters towards injury YLD calculations, implementation of DWs, and the choice of life table for YLL calculations. Development and use of guidelines for performing and reporting of injury BoD studies is crucial to enhance transparency and comparability of injury BoD estimates across Europe and beyond.
  • Leung, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Cognition, function, and prevalent dementia in centenarians and near-centenarians: An individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of 18 studies
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Alzheimers & Dementia. - : Wiley. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 19:6, s. 2265-2275
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IntroductionThere are limited data on prevalence of dementia in centenarians and near-centenarians (C/NC), its determinants, and whether the risk of dementia continues to rise beyond 100. MethodsParticipant-level data were obtained from 18 community-based studies (N = 4427) in 11 countries that included individuals >= 95 years. A harmonization protocol was applied to cognitive and functional impairments, and a meta-analysis was performed. ResultsThe mean age was 98.3 years (SD = 2.67); 79% were women. After adjusting for age, sex, and education, dementia prevalence was 53.2% in women and 45.5% in men, with risk continuing to increase with age. Education (OR 0.95;0.92-0.98) was protective, as was hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 0.51;0.35-0.74) in five studies. Dementia was not associated with diabetes, vision and hearing impairments, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). DiscussionAmong the exceptional old, dementia prevalence remains higher in the older participants. Education was protective against dementia, but other factors for dementia-free survival in C/NC remain to be understood.
  • Lindegren, L., et al. (författare)
  • Gaia Data Release 1 : Astrometry: One billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - : EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. Aims. We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. Methods. For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained, essentially by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results. For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude ∼11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending for example on position and colour are at a level of ± 0.3 milliarcsecond (mas). For the remaining stars we obtain positions at epoch J2015.0 accurate to ∼10 mas. Positions and proper motions are given in a reference frame that is aligned with the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to better than 0.1 mas at epoch J2015.0, and non-rotating with respect to ICRF to within 0.03 mas yr-1. The Hipparcos reference frame is found to rotate with respect to the Gaia DR1 frame at a rate of 0.24 mas yr-1. Conclusions. Based on less than a quarter of the nominal mission length and on very provisional and incomplete calibrations, the quality and completeness of the astrometric data in Gaia DR1 are far from what is expected for the final mission products. The present results nevertheless represent a huge improvement in the available fundamental stellar data and practical definition of the optical reference frame.
  • Marconi, A., et al. (författare)
  • ELT-HIRES, the high resolution spectrograph for the ELT : results from the Phase A study
  • 2018
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results from the phase A study of ELT-HIRES, an optical-infrared High Resolution Spectrograph for ELT, which has just been completed by a consortium of 30 institutes from 12 countries forming a team of about 200 scientists and engineers. The top science cases of ELT-HIRES will be the detection of life signatures from exoplanet atmospheres, tests on the stability of Nature's fundamental couplings, the direct detection of the cosmic acceleration. However, the science requirements of these science cases enable many other groundbreaking science cases. The baseline design, which allows to fulfil the top science cases, consists in a modular fiber fed cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph with two ultra-stable spectral arms providing a simultaneous spectral range of 0.4-1.8 pm at a spectral resolution of 100, 000. The fiber-feeding allows ELT-HIRES to have several, interchangeable observing modes including a SCAO module and a small diffraction-limited IFU.
  • Esposito, B., et al. (författare)
  • Progress of Design and Development for the ITER Radial Neutron Camera
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of fusion energy. - : Springer. - 0164-0313 .- 1572-9591. ; 41:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper presents an overview of the design status of the Radial Neutron Camera (RNC), that, together with the Vertical Neutron Camera, will provide, through reconstruction techniques applied to the measured line-integrated neutron fluxes, the time resolved measurement of the ITER neutron and alpha-source profile (i.e. neutron emissivity, neutrons emitted per unit time and volume). The RNC is composed of two subsystems, the In-Port RNC and Ex-Port RNC located, respectively, inside and outside the Plug of Equatorial Port #01. The In-Port subsystem is in a more advanced design stage since it has recently undergone the Final Design Review in the ITER procurement process. The paper describes the diagnostic layout, the interfaces, the measurement capabilities and the main challenges in its realization. Prototyping and testing of neutron detectors and electronics components were carried out and led to the choice of the component solutions that can match the environmental and operational constraints in terms radiation hardness, high temperature and electromagnetic compatibility. The performance of the RNC in terms of neutron emissivity measurement capability was assessed through 1D and 2D reconstruction analysis. It is proven that the neutron emissivity can be reconstructed in real-time within the measurement requirements: 10% accuracy, 10 ms time resolution and a/10 (a = plasma minor radius) space resolution.
  • Kehoe, Laura, et al. (författare)
  • Make EU trade with Brazil sustainable
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 364:6438, s. 341-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)
  • Marconi, A., et al. (författare)
  • EELT-HIRES the high-resolution spectrograph for the E-ELT
  • 2016
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first generation of E-ELT instruments will include an optical infrared High Resolution Spectrograph, conventionally indicated as EELT-HIRES, which will be capable of providing unique breakthroughs in the fields of exoplanets, star and planet formation, physics and evolution of stars and galaxies, cosmology and fundamental physics. A 2-year long phase A study for EELT-HIRES has just started and will be performed by a consortium composed of institutes and organisations from Brazil, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. In this paper we describe the science goals and the preliminary technical concept for EELT-HIRES which will be developed during the phase A, as well as its planned development and consortium organisation during the study.
  • Nicolas, Aude, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide Analyses Identify KIF5A as a Novel ALS Gene
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - : Cell Press. - 0896-6273 .- 1097-4199. ; 97:6, s. 1268-1283.e6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify novel genes associated with ALS, we undertook two lines of investigation. We carried out a genome-wide association study comparing 20,806 ALS cases and 59,804 controls. Independently, we performed a rare variant burden analysis comparing 1,138 index familial ALS cases and 19,494 controls. Through both approaches, we identified kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) as a novel gene associated with ALS. Interestingly, mutations predominantly in the N-terminal motor domain of KIF5A are causative for two neurodegenerative diseases: hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2). In contrast, ALS-associated mutations are primarily located at the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain and patients harboring loss-of-function mutations displayed an extended survival relative to typical ALS cases. Taken together, these results broaden the phenotype spectrum resulting from mutations in KIF5A and strengthen the role of cytoskeletal defects in the pathogenesis of ALS.
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