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Sökning: WFRF:(Shuldiner Alan R.) > (2010-2014)

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  • Föregående 123[4]
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31.
  • Saxena, Richa, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 42:2, s. 75-142
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2- h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).
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32.
  • van der Harst, Pim, et al. (författare)
  • Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 492:7429, s. 369-375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify 75 independent genetic loci associated with one or more red blood cell phenotypes at P < 10(-8), which together explain 4-9% of the phenotypic variance per trait. Using expression quantitative trait loci and bioinformatic strategies, we identify 121 candidate genes enriched in functions relevant to red blood cell biology. The candidate genes are expressed preferentially in red blood cell precursors, and 43 have haematopoietic phenotypes in Mus musculus or Drosophila melanogaster. Through open-chromatin and coding-variant analyses we identify potential causal genetic variants at 41 loci. Our findings provide extensive new insights into genetic mechanisms and biological pathways controlling red blood cell formation and function.
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33.
  • Billings, Liana K., et al. (författare)
  • The Influence of Rare Genetic Variation in SLC30A8 on Diabetes Incidence and beta-Cell Function
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 99:5, s. 926-930
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context/Objective: The variant rs13266634 in SLC30A8, encoding a beta-cell-specific zinc transporter, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to identify other variants in SLC30A8 that increase diabetes risk and impair beta-cell function, and test whether zinc intake modifies this risk. Design/Outcome: We sequenced exons in SLC30A8 in 380 Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) participants and identified 44 novel variants, which were genotyped in 3445 DPP participants and tested for association with diabetes incidence and measures of insulin secretion and processing. We examined individual common variants and used gene burden tests to test 39 rare variants in aggregate. Results: We detected a near-nominal association between a rare-variant genotype risk score and diabetes risk. Five common variants were associated with the oral disposition index. Various methods aggregating rare variants demonstrated associations with changes in oral disposition index and insulinogenic index during year 1 of follow-up. We did not find a clear interaction of zinc intake with genotype on diabetes incidence. Conclusions: Individual common and an aggregate of rare genetic variation in SLC30A8 are associated with measures of beta-cell function in the DPP. Exploring rare variation may complement ongoing efforts to uncover the genetic influences that underlie complex diseases.
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34.
  • McCaffery, Jeanne M., et al. (författare)
  • TCF7L2 Polymorphism, Weight Loss and Proinsulin: Insulin Ratio in the Diabetes Prevention Program
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 6:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: TCF7L2 variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and deficits in proinsulin processing and insulin secretion. Here we sought to test whether these effects were apparent in high-risk individuals and modify treatment responses. Methods: We examined the potential role of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant in predicting resistance to weight loss or a lack of improvement of proinsulin processing during 2.5-years of follow-up participants (N = 2,994) from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized controlled trial designed to prevent or delay diabetes in high-risk adults. Results: We observed no difference in the degree of weight loss by rs7903146 genotypes. However, the T allele (conferring higher risk of diabetes) at rs7903146 was associated with higher fasting proinsulin at baseline (P, 0.001), higher baseline proinsulin: insulin ratio (p<0.0001) and increased proinsulin: insulin ratio over a median of 2.5 years of follow-up (P = 0.003). Effects were comparable across treatment arms. Conclusions: The combination of a lack of impact of the TCF7L2 genotypes on the ability to lose weight, but the presence of a consistent effect on the proinsulin: insulin ratio over the course of DPP, suggests that high-risk genotype carriers at this locus can successfully lose weight to counter diabetes risk despite persistent deficits in insulin production.
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35.
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36.
  • Prokopenko, Inga, et al. (författare)
  • A Central Role for GRB10 in Regulation of Islet Function in Man.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variants in the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) gene were in a GWAS meta-analysis associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) if inherited from the father, but inexplicably reduced fasting glucose when inherited from the mother. GRB10 is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and imprinted in a parent-of-origin fashion in different tissues. GRB10 knock-down in human pancreatic islets showed reduced insulin and glucagon secretion, which together with changes in insulin sensitivity may explain the paradoxical reduction of glucose despite a decrease in insulin secretion. Together, these findings suggest that tissue-specific methylation and possibly imprinting of GRB10 can influence glucose metabolism and contribute to T2D pathogenesis. The data also emphasize the need in genetic studies to consider whether risk alleles are inherited from the mother or the father.
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37.
  • Florez, Jose C., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of Genetic Variants Previously Associated with Fasting Glucose and Insulin in the Diabetes Prevention Program
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 7:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Common genetic variants have been recently associated with fasting glucose and insulin levels in white populations. Whether these associations replicate in pre-diabetes is not known. We extended these findings to the Diabetes Prevention Program, a clinical trial in which participants at high risk for diabetes were randomized to placebo, lifestyle modification or metformin for diabetes prevention. We genotyped previously reported polymorphisms (or their proxies) in/near G6PC2, MTNR1B, GCK, DGKB, GCKR, ADCY5, MADD, CRY2, ADRA2A, FADS1, PROX1, SLC2A2, GLIS3, C2CD4B, IGF1, and IRS1 in 3,548 Diabetes Prevention Program participants. We analyzed variants for association with baseline glycemic traits, incident diabetes and their interaction with response to metformin or lifestyle intervention. We replicated associations with fasting glucose at MTNR1B (P<0.001), G6PC2 (P=0.002) and GCKR (P=0.001). We noted impaired beta-cell function in carriers of glucose-raising alleles at MTNR1B (P<0.001), and an increase in the insulinogenic index for the glucose-raising allele at G6PC2 (P<0.001). The association of MTNR1B with fasting glucose and impaired beta-cell function persisted at 1 year despite adjustment for the baseline trait, indicating a sustained deleterious effect at this locus. We also replicated the association of MADD with fasting proinsulin levels (P<0.001). We detected no significant impact of these variants on diabetes incidence or interaction with preventive interventions. The association of several polymorphisms with quantitative glycemic traits is replicated in a cohort of high-risk persons. These variants do not have a detectable impact on diabetes incidence or response to metformin or lifestyle modification in the Diabetes Prevention Program.
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38.
  • Ma, Lijun, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of A2BP1 as an Obesity Gene
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 1939-327X .- 0012-1797. ; 59:11, s. 2837-2845
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE-A genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Pima Indians (n = 413) identified variation in the ataxin-2 binding protein 1 gene (A2BP1) that was associated with percent body fat. On the basis of this association and the obese phenotype of ataxin-2 knockout mice, A2BP1 was genetically and functionally analyzed to assess its potential role in human obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Variants spanning A2BP1 were genotyped in a population-based sample of 3,234 full-heritage Pima Indians, 2,843 of whom were not part of the initial GWAS study and therefore could serve as a sample to assess replication. Published GWAS data across A2BP1 were additionally analyzed in French adult (n = 1,426) and children case/control subjects (n = 1,392) (Meyre et al. Nat Genet 2009;41:157-159). Selected variants were genotyped in two additional samples of Caucasians (Amish, n = 1,149, and German children case/control subjects, n = 998) and one additional Native American (n = 2,531) sample. Small interfering RNA was used to knockdown A2bp1 message levels in mouse embryonic hypothalamus cells. RESULTS-No single variant in A2BP1 was reproducibly associated with obesity across the different populations. However, different variants within intron 1 of A2BP1 were associated with BMI in full-heritage Pima Indians (rs10500331, P = 1.9 x 10(-7)) and obesity in French Caucasian adult (rs4786847, P = 1.9 x 10(-10)) and children (rs8054147, P = 9.2 x 10(-6)) case/control subjects. Reduction of A2bp1 in mouse embryonic hypothalamus cells decreased expression of Atxn2, Insr, and Mc4r. CONCLUSIONS-Association analysis suggests that variation in A2BP1 influences obesity, and functional studies suggest that A2BP1 could potentially affect adiposity via the hypothalamic MC4R pathway. Diabetes 59:2837-2845, 2010
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39.
  • Pollin, Toni I., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Modulation of Lipid Profiles following Lifestyle Modification or Metformin Treatment: The Diabetes Prevention Program
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32 lipid-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms modifies the effects of lifestyle and/or metformin interventions on lipid levels and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) lipoprotein subfraction size and number. Twenty-three loci previously associated with fasting LDL-C, HDL-C, or triglycerides replicated (P = 0.04-1x10(-17)). Except for total HDL particles (r = -0.03, P = 0.26), all components of the lipid profile correlated with the GRS (partial |r| = 0.07-0.17, P=5x10(-5)-1x10(-19)). The GRS was associated with higher baseline-adjusted 1-year LDL cholesterol levels (beta = +0.87, SEE +/- 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P=8x10(-5), P-interaction = 0.02) in the lifestyle intervention group, but not in the placebo (beta = +0.20, SEE +/- 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.35) or metformin (beta = -0.03, SEE +/- 0.22 mg/dl/allele, P = 0.90; P-interaction = 0.64) groups. Similarly, a higher GRS predicted a greater number of baseline-adjusted small LDL particles at 1 year in the lifestyle intervention arm (beta = +0.30, SEE +/- 0.012 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.01, P-interaction = 0.01) but not in the placebo (beta = 20.002, SEE +/- 0.008 ln nmol/L/allele, P = 0.74) or metformin (beta = +0.013, SEE +/- 0.008 nmol/L/allele, P = 0.12; P-interaction = 0.24) groups. Our findings suggest that a high genetic burden confers an adverse lipid profile and predicts attenuated response in LDL-C levels and small LDL particle number to dietary and physical activity interventions aimed at weight loss.
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40.
  • Speliotes, Elizabeth K, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies variants associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that have distinct effects on metabolic traits.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 7:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) clusters in families, but the only known common genetic variants influencing risk are near PNPLA3. We sought to identify additional genetic variants influencing NAFLD using genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis, a non-invasive measure of NAFLD, in large population based samples. Using variance components methods, we show that CT hepatic steatosis is heritable (∼26%-27%) in family-based Amish, Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies (n = 880 to 3,070). By carrying out a fixed-effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results between CT hepatic steatosis and ∼2.4 million imputed or genotyped SNPs in 7,176 individuals from the Old Order Amish, Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study (AGES), Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies, we identify variants associated at genome-wide significant levels (p<5×10(-8)) in or near PNPLA3, NCAN, and PPP1R3B. We genotype these and 42 other top CT hepatic steatosis-associated SNPs in 592 subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD from the NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN). In comparisons with 1,405 healthy controls from the Myocardial Genetics Consortium (MIGen), we observe significant associations with histologic NAFLD at variants in or near NCAN, GCKR, LYPLAL1, and PNPLA3, but not PPP1R3B. Variants at these five loci exhibit distinct patterns of association with serum lipids, as well as glycemic and anthropometric traits. We identify common genetic variants influencing CT-assessed steatosis and risk of NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis associated variants are not uniformly associated with NASH/fibrosis or result in abnormalities in serum lipids or glycemic and anthropometric traits, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in the pathways influencing these traits.
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