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  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and risk for death and cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 170:6, s. 1151-1160
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Inflammation has been associated with cardiovascular disease and the burden of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study we evaluate inflammatory biomarkers and future cardiovascular events in AF patients in the RE-LY study. Methods Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) (n = 6,187), and fibrinogen (n = 4,893) were analyzed at randomization; outcomes were evaluated by Cox models and C-statistics. Results Adjusted for clinical risk factors IL-6 was independently associated with stroke or systemic embolism (P =.0041), major bleedings (P =.0001), vascular death (P<.0001), and a composite thromboembolic outcome (ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism and vascular death) (P<.0001). CRP was independently related to myocardial infarction (P =.0047), vascular death (P =.0004), and the composite thromboembolic outcome (P =.0001). When further adjusted for cardiac (troponin andN-terminal fragment B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) and renal (cystatin-C) biomarkers on top of clinical risk factors IL-6 remained significantly related to vascular death (P<.0001), major bleeding (P<.0170) and the composite thromboembolic outcome (P<.0001), and CRP to myocardial infarction (.0104). Fibrinogen was not associated with any outcome. C-index for stroke or systemic embolism increased from 0.615 to 0.642 (P =.0017) when adding IL-6 to the clinically used CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc risk score with net reclassification improvement of 28%. Conclusion In patients with AF, IL-6 is related to higher risk of stroke and major bleeding, and both markers are related to higher risk of vascular death and the composite of thromboembolic events independent of clinical risk factors. Adjustment for cardiovascular biomarkers attenuated the prognostic value, although IL-6 remained related to mortality, the composite of thromboembolic events, and major bleeding, and CRP to myocardial infarction.
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Serial measurement of interleukin-6 and risk of mortality in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation : Insights from ARISTOTLE and RE-LY trials.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Elsevier BV. - 1538-7933 .- 1538-7836. ; 18:9, s. 2287-2295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The inflammatory biomarker interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF).OBJECTIVE: To investigate if repeated IL-6 measurements improve the prognostication for stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF.METHODS: IL-6 levels by ELISA were measured at study entry and at 2 months in 4830 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial with 1.8 years median follow-up. In the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, IL-6 was measured at study entry, 3, 6, and 12 months in 2559 patients with 2.0 years median follow-up. Associations between a second IL-6 measurement and outcomes, adjusted for baseline IL-6, clinical variables, and other cardiovascular biomarkers, were analyzed by Cox regression.RESULTS: Median IL-6 levels were 2.0 ng/L (interquartile range [IQR] 1.30-3.20) and 2.10 ng/L (IQR 1.40-3.40) at the two time-points in ARISTOTLE, and, in RE-LY, 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.3), 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.2), 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.6, 3.9), and 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.5, 3.9), respectively. IL-6 was associated with mortality; hazard ratios per 50% higher IL-6 at 2 or 3 months, respectively, were 1.32 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.41; P < .0001) in ARISTOTLE, and 1.11 (1.01-1.22, P = .0290) in RE-LY; with improved C index from 0.74 to 0.76 in ARISTOTLE, but not in the smaller RE-LY cohort. There were no consistent associations with second IL-6 and stroke or systemic embolism, or major bleeding.CONCLUSIONS: Persistent systemic inflammatory activity, assessed by repeated IL-6 measurements, is associated with mortality independent of established clinical risk factors and other strong cardiovascular biomarkers in anticoagulated patients with AF.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-Based Prediction of Recurrent Ischemic Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 80:18, s. 1735-1747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there is residual and variable risk of recurrent ischemic events.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop biomarker-based prediction models for 1-year risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.METHODS: We included 10,713 patients from the PLATO (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial in the development cohort and externally validated in 3,508 patients from the TRACER (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial. Variables contributing to risk of CV death/MI were assessed using Cox regression models, and a score was derived using subsets of variables approximating the full model.RESULTS: There were 632 and 190 episodes of CV death/MI in the development and validation cohorts. The most important predictors of CV death/MI were the biomarkers, growth differentiation factor 15, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which had greater prognostic value than all candidate variables. The final model included 8 items: age (A), biomarkers (B) (growth differentiation factor 15 and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and clinical variables (C) (extent of coronary artery disease, previous vascular disease, Killip class, ACS type, P2Y12 inhibitor). The model, named ABC-ACS ischemia, was well calibrated and showed good discriminatory ability for 1-year risk of CV death/MI with C-indices of 0.71 and 0.72 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. For CV death, the score performed better, with C-indices of 0.80 and 0.84 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: An 8-item score for the prediction of CV death/MI was developed and validated for patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The ABC-ACS ischemia score showed good calibration and discrimination and might be useful for risk prediction and decision support in patients with ACS. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872; Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar [SCH 530348; MK-5348] in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Participants With Acute Coronary Syndrome [TRACER]; NCT00527943)
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of early myocardial reperfusion and perfusion on myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation in patients with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : results from the PLATelet inhibition and patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 11:4, s. 336-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Restoration of myocardial blood flow and perfusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) measured using Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade (TFG) and perfusion grade (TMPG) is associated with improved outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarkers reflecting myocardial damage/dysfunction and inflammation is unknown. Methods and results Among 2606 patients included, TFG was evaluated in 2198 and TMPG in 1874 with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment ACS (NSTE-ACS). Biomarkers reflecting myocardial necrosis [troponin T (TnT)], myocardial dysfunction [N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)], inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and oxidative stress/ageing/inflammation [growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)] were measured at baseline, discharge, and 1- and 6-month post-randomization. Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarker levels were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon signed test. In total, 1423 (54.6%) patients had STEMI and 1183 (45.4%) NSTE-ACS. Complete reperfusion after PCI with TFG = 3 was achieved in 1110 (85.3%) with STEMI and in 793 (88.5%) with NSTE-ACS. Normal myocardial perfusion with TMPG = 3 was achieved in 475 (41.6%) with STEMI and in 396 (54.0%) with NSTE-ACS. Levels of TnT, NT-proBNP, IL-6, CRP, and GDF-15 were substantially lower at discharge in patients with complete vs. incomplete TFG and STEMI (P < 0.01). This pattern was not observed for patients with NSTE-ACS. Patients with normal vs. abnormal TMPG and NSTE-ACS had lower levels of NT-proBNP at discharge (P = 0.01). Conclusions Successful restoration of epicardial blood flow in STEMI was associated with less myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation. Attainment of normal myocardial perfusion was associated with less myocardial dysfunction in NSTE-ACS.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin 6 and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Coronary Syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 6:12, s. 1440-1445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease and anti-inflammatory treatment reduces cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is unclear how inflammation mediated by interleukin 6 (IL-6) in patients with CKD is linked to cardiovascular disease.Objective: To investigate associations between IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic coronary syndrome in association with kidney function.Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included patients enrolled at 663 centers in 39 countries with chronic coronary syndrome who were included in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (STABILITY) trial. Patients were enrolled between December 2008 and April 2010 and were followed up for a median length of 3.7 years. Analysis in this substudy began September 2020.Exposures: Exposures were IL-6 and creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), which were collected at baseline. Associations between continuous and categorical levels (<2.0 ng/L vs ≥2.0 ng/L) of IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes were tested in association with eGFR cutoffs (normal eGFR level [≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2], mildly decreased eGFR level [60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2], and moderately to severely decreased eGFR level [<60 mL/min/1.73 m2]).Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.Results: This substudy of the STABILITY trial included 14 611 patients with available IL-6 levels at baseline. The median (interquartile range) age was 65 (59-71) years, and 2700 (18.5%) were female. During follow-up, MACE occurred in 1459 individuals (10.0%). Higher levels of IL-6 were in continuous models independently associated with risk of MACE (P < .001) in all CKD strata. Using predefined strata, elevated IL-6 level (≥2.0 vs <2.0 ng/L) was associated with increased risk of MACE at normal kidney function (2.9% vs 1.9% events/y [hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.78]), mild CKD (3.3% vs 1.9% [hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.83]), and moderate to severe CKD (5.0% vs 2.9% [hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.28-1.99]).Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome, elevated levels of IL-6 were associated with risk of MACE in all CKD strata. Thus, IL-6 and CKD stage may help when identifying patients with chronic coronary syndrome for anti-inflammatory treatment.
  • Benz, Alexander P., et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-Based Risk Prediction With the ABC-AF Scores in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Not Receiving Oral Anticoagulation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 143:19, s. 1863-1873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The novel ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical History) scores outperform traditional risk scores for stroke, major bleeding, and death in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving oral anticoagulation. To refine their utility, the ABC-AF scores needed to be validated in patients not receiving oral anticoagulation.Methods: We measured plasma levels of the ABC biomarkers (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin-T, and growth-differentiation factor 15) to apply the previously developed ABC-AF scores in patients with AF receiving aspirin (n=3195) or aspirin and clopidogrel (n=1110) in 2 large clinical trials. Calibration was assessed by comparing estimated with observed 1-year risks. Cox regression models were used for recalibration. Discrimination was evaluated separately for the aspirin-only and the overall cohort (n=4305).Results: The ABC-AF-stroke score yielded a c-index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67-0.73) in both cohorts. The ABC-AF-bleeding score had a c-index of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.71-0.81) in the aspirin-only cohort and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) overall. Both scores were superior to risk scores recommended by current guidelines. The ABC-AF-death score yielded a c-index of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.76-0.80) overall. Calibrated in patients receiving oral anticoagulation, the ABC-AF-stroke score underestimated and the ABC-AF-bleeding score overestimated the risk of events in both cohorts. These scores were recalibrated for prediction of absolute event rates in the absence of oral anticoagulation.Conclusions: The biomarker-based ABC-AF scores showed better discrimination than traditional risk scores and were recalibrated for precise risk estimation in patients not receiving oral anticoagulation. They can now provide improved decision support on treatment of an individual patient with AF.
  • Benz, Alexander P., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma angiopoietin-2 and its association with heart failure in patients with atrial fibrillation
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Europace. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1099-5129 .- 1532-2092. ; 25:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Several biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but a causal relationship has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate angiopoietin-2, a novel candidate biomarker of endothelial inflammation and vascular remodelling, in patients with AF.Methods and results: Angiopoietin-2 was measured in plasma obtained from patients with AF treated with aspirin monotherapy (exploration cohort, n = 2987) or with oral anticoagulation (validation cohort, n = 13 079). Regression models were built to assess the associations between angiopoietin-2, clinical characteristics, and outcomes. In both cohorts, plasma angiopoietin-2 was independently associated with AF on the baseline electrocardiogram and persistent/permanent AF, age, history of heart failure, female sex, tobacco use/smoking, body mass index, renal dysfunction, diabetes, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Angiopoietin-2 was independently associated with subsequent hospitalization for heart failure after adjusting for age, creatinine, and clinical characteristics in the exploration cohort [c-index 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.82; third vs. first quartile, hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, 95% CI 1.26-2.41] and in the validation cohort (c-index 0.76, 95% CI 0.74-0.78; HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.37-1.82). In both cohorts, the association persisted when also adjusting for NT-proBNP (P & LE; 0.001). In full multivariable models also adjusted for NT-proBNP, angiopoietin-2 did not show statistically significant associations with ischaemic stroke, cardiovascular and all-cause death, or major bleeding that were consistent across the two cohorts.Conclusions: In patients with AF, plasma levels of angiopoietin-2 were independently associated with subsequent hospitalization for heart failure and provided incremental prognostic value to clinical risk factors and NT-proBNP.
  • Blume-Jensen, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Activation of the human c-kit product by ligand-induced dimerization mediates circular actin reorganization and chemotaxis
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: EMBO Journal. - 0261-4189 .- 1460-2075. ; 10:13, s. 4121-4128
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The proto-oncogene c-kit is allelic with the murine white spotting (W) locus and encodes a transmembrane protein tyrosine kinase that is structurally related to the receptors for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). Recently the ligand for the c-kit product, stem cell factor (SCF), was identified in both transmembrane and soluble forms. In order to examine the mechanism for receptor activation by SCF and biological properties of the activated c-kit product, we transfected the wild-type human c-kit cDNA into porcine aortic endothelial cells. We found that the receptor was down-regulated and transmitted a mitogenic signal in response to stimulation with soluble SCF. We also demonstrate that SCF induces dimerization of the c-kit product in intact cells, and that dimerization of the receptor is correlated with activation of its kinase. Activation of the c-kit product by SCF was found to induce circular actin reorganization indistinguishable from that mediated by the PDGF beta-receptor in response to PDGF-BB. Furthermore, soluble SCF was a potent chemotactic agent for cells expressing the c-kit product, a property which might be of importance during embryonic development.
  • Braun, Oscar, et al. (författare)
  • Greater reduction of platelet activation markers and platelet-monocyte aggregates by prasugrel compared to clopidogrel in stable coronary artery disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - 0340-6245 .- 2567-689X. ; 100:4, s. 626-633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prasugrel, a novel P2Y(12) ADP-receptor antagonist, has been reported to achieve greater inhibition of platelet aggregation compared to clopidogrel as assessed by light transmission aggregometry. It was the objective of this study to investigate the effect of prasugrel on alternative markers of platelet activation in comparison to a high loading dose and the approved maintenance dose of clopidogrel. One hundred ten aspirin-treated patients with stable coronary artery disease were randomized to a loading dose (LD, day 1)/ maintenance dose (MD, days 2-29) of prasugrel 60 mg/10 mg or clopidogrel 600 mg/75 mg. Platelet activation markers were analyzed by whole blood flow cytometry pre-dose and at 2 and 24 hours after LD and pre-dose at 14 and 29 days. After stimulation with 20 muM ADP, 2 hours after LD, significantly lower expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa (4.3 vs. 21.8 [mean fluorescent intensity (MFI)], p < 0.001) and P-selectin (2.0 vs. 11.7 MFI, p < 0.001) along with decreased formation of platelet-monocyte aggregates (16.4% vs. 29.6% positive cells, p < 0.001) was observed with prasugrel versus clopidogrel. All these effects were maintained through 24 hours and during the MD period. In conclusion, prasugrel 60 mg LD and 10 mg MD inhibit several markers of platelet activation and the formation of platelet-monocyte aggregates more effectively than a 600 mg LD and 75 mg MD of clopidogrel. Attenuated platelet aggregation and reduced expression of platelet pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory markers with prasugrel suggest the potential to reduce cardiovascular events both in the acute setting and in long-term treatment.
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