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  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:11, s. 1345-1345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
  • Edén, Desireé, et al. (författare)
  • Adipocytes express tissue factor and FVII and are procoagulant in a TF/FVIIa-dependent manner
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0300-9734 .- 2000-1967. ; 124:3, s. 158-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tissue factor (TF) combined with its ligand FVII initiates blood coagulation and intracellular signaling. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects have increased TF expression in their adipose tissue and an increased risk for thrombotic complications. Here we address the role of TF/FVII on adipocyte functions.Materials and methods: Subcutaneous fat was obtained by means of needle aspiration from healthy volunteers, and adipocytes were isolated after collagenase digestion. 3T3-L1 fibroblasts kept in culture were differentiated into adipocytes by addition of IBMX, dexamethasone, rosiglitazone, and insulin to the media. Proteins and mRNA were analyzed by western blot and RT-PCR. Coagulation activity was determined by a colorimetric FX-assay. Lipolysis was measured as free glycerol using a colorimetric method. Glucose uptake was evaluated by scintillation counting of D-[U-C-14] glucose.Results: In isolated human primary adipocytes we found expression of TF and FVII. TF expression was confirmed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and both cell types were found to be procoagulant in a TF/FVIIa-dependent manner. FXa was generated without FVIIa added to the coagulation assay, and active site-inhibited FVIIa blocked FXa formation, supporting our finding of FVII production by human primary adipocytes. There was no evidence for a role of TF in either lipolysis or glucose uptake in our experimental settings.Conclusion: Human primary adipocytes express active TF and FVII, and the TF/FVIIa complex formed on the adipocyte surface can activate substrate FX. Whether the TF/FVIIa complex conveys signaling pathways leading to biological functions and has any biological activity in adipocytes beyond coagulation remains to be elucidated.
  • Edén, Desireé, et al. (författare)
  • Tissue factor/factor VIIa signalling promotes cytokine-induced beta cell death and impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human pancreatic islets
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 58:11, s. 2563-2572
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Patients diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes have elevated levels of coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) and its receptor tissue factor (TF) in their bloodstream. This may affect the fate of the beta cells. We aimed to study the effects of TF/FVIIa signalling on cytokine-induced beta cell death and islet function in vitro. Methods Human pancreatic islets and MIN-6 beta cells were used to study TF mRNA and protein expression using real-time PCR, immunoblotting and flow cytometry. The effects of TF/FVIIa on cytokine-induced beta cell death were studied in MIN-6 cells and human pancreatic islets using cell-death ELISA and propidium iodide and cleaved caspase-3 staining. Effects of TF/FVIIa on the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were investigated by immunoblotting. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from human islets was measured with an insulin ELISA. Results A combination of the cytokines IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma induced TF expression in human pancreatic islets and in beta cells. TF/FVIIa did not affect basal beta cell death but, independently of downstream coagulation activity, augmented beta cell death in response to cytokines. The effect of TF/FVIIa on cytokine-induced beta cell death was found to be dependent on the stress kinase JNK, since FVIIa addition potentiated cytokine-induced JNK activation and JNK inhibition abolished the effect of TF/FVIIa on cytokine-induced beta cell death. Moreover, TF/FVIIa signalling resulted in inhibition of GSIS from human pancreatic islets. Conclusions/interpretation These results indicate that TF/FVIIa signalling has a negative effect on beta cell function and promotes beta cell death in response to cytokines.
  • Edén, Desireé (författare)
  • Tissue Factor regulation, signaling and functions beyond coagulation with a focus on diabetes
  • 2020
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Tissue factor (TF) is a 47 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein best known for initiating the coagulation cascade upon binding of its ligand FVIIa. Apart from its physiological role in coagulation, TF and TF/FVIIa signaling has proved to be involved in diseases such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Biological functions coupled to TF/FVIIa signaling include diet-induced obesity, apoptosis, angiogenesis and migration.Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of TF/FVIIa in cells of importance in diabetes, to further investigate the mechanism behind TF/FVIIa anti-apoptotic signaling in cancer cells and lastly to examine the regulation of TF expression in monocytes by micro RNAs (miRNA).Results: In paper I we found that TF/FVIIa signaling augments cytokine-induced beta cell death and impairs glucose stimulated insulin secretion from human pancreatic islets. In paper II the relevance of TF/FVIIa in isolated human primary adipocytes was investigated. Adipocytes are a target cell for insulin and diabetics typically have increased lipolysis and impaired glucose uptake. No evidence was found for a role of TF/FVIIa in lipolysis or glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, adipocytes were found to express TF and FVII. The FVII produced was sufficient to initiate coagulation in the adipocytes. In paper III an anti-apoptotic TF/FVIIa induced signaling pathway in prostate and breast cancer cells was investigated in depth. Previous research has shown that TF/FVIIa signaling results in transactivation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) leading to subsequent protection from apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). The current results propose a mechanism where IGF-1R transactivation by TF/FVIIa is dependent on integrin β1 (ITGβ1) signaling. TF/FVIIa/ ITGβ1 signaling was found to result in phosphorylation of src and subsequent phosphorylation of caveolin 1 (Cav1). Once phosphorylated, the inhibitory effect of Cav1 on IGF-1R is cancelled, resulting in IGF-1R activation. In paper IV the role of miRNA regulation of TF expression in monocytic cells was investigated. The miRNA miR-223-3p was identified to be differentially expressed in U937 cells undergoing differentiation to a more monocyte-like phenotype and an anti-parallel correlation between TF and miR-223-3p expression in monocytes was proved. Hence, miR-223-3p regulates the inducible expression of TF in monocytes.Conclusions: The work in this thesis furthers the knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind TF regulation and TF/FVIIa signaling and some functional consequences as well as their biological relevance in diabetes. 
  • Eggers, Kai M., 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Growth-differentiation factor-15 for long-term risk prediction in patients stabilized after an episode of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics. - 1942-3268. ; 3:1, s. 88-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has emerged as a prognostic biomarker in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome. This study assessed the time course and the long-term prognostic relevance of GDF-15 levels measured repetitively in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome during 6 months after the acute event. METHODS AND RESULTS: GDF-15 and other biomarkers were measured at randomization, after 6 weeks, and after 3 and 6 months in 950 patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome included in the FRagmin and Fast Revascularization during InStability in Coronary artery disease II study. Study end points were death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and their composite during 5-year follow-up. Median GDF-15 levels decreased slightly from 1357 ng/L at randomization to 1302 ng/L at 6 months (P<0.001). GDF-15 was consistently related to cardiovascular risk factors and biochemical markers of hemodynamic stress, renal dysfunction, and inflammation. Moreover, GDF-15 was independently related to the 5-year risk of the composite end point when measured at both 3 months (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.8 [1.0 to 3.0]) and 6 months (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.3 [1.3 to 4.1]). Serial measurements of GDF-15 at randomization and 6 months helped to identify patient cohorts at different levels of risk, with patients with persistently elevated GDF-15 levels >1800 ng/L having the highest rate of the composite end point. CONCLUSIONS: GDF-15 is independently related to adverse events in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome both in the acute setting and for at least 6 months after clinical stabilization. Therefore, continued research on GDF-15 should be focused on the usefulness of GDF-15 for support of clinical management in acute and chronic ischemic heart disease.
  • Eggers, Kai M., et al. (författare)
  • High-sensitive cardiac troponin T and its relations to cardiovascular risk factors, morbidity, and mortality in elderly men
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 166:3, s. 541-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Cardiac troponin is emerging as risk indicator in community-dwelling populations. In this study, we investigated the associations of cardiac troponin T (cTnT) to cardiovascular (CV) disease and outcome in elderly men. Methods Cardiac troponin T was measured using a high-sensitive assay in 940 men aged 71 years participating in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men. We assessed both the cross-sectional associations of cTnT to CV risk factors and morbidities including cancer and the longitudinal associations to outcomes over 10 years of follow-up. Results Cardiac troponin T levels were measurable in 872 subjects (92.8%). In the cross-sectional analyses, cTnT was associated to CV risk factors (diabetes, smoking, and obesity), renal dysfunction, CV disease including atrial fibrillation and coronary artery disease, and biomarkers of inflammation and left ventricular dysfunction. In the longitudinal analyses, cTnT independently predicted total mortality and CV events including stroke. The standardized adjusted hazard ratio regarding the composite CV end point was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3-1.8), P < .001, for men with prevalent CV disease and 1.2 (95% CI 1.0-1.4), P = .02, for men without. Cardiac troponin T improved discrimination metrics for all outcomes in the total population. This was mainly driven by the prognostic value of cTnT in subjects with prevalent CV disease. Conclusions In community-dwelling men, cTnT levels are associated to CV risk factors and morbidities and predict both fatal and nonfatal CV events. The relations to outcome are mainly seen in men with prevalent CV disease indicating that the prognostic value of cTnT in subjects free from CV disease is limited.
  • Eggers, Kai M, et al. (författare)
  • Relations of growth-differentiation factor-15 to biomarkers reflecting vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of elderly subjects
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0036-5513 .- 1502-7686. ; 72:1, s. 45-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has recently emerged as a risk predictor in patients with cardiac diseases. GDF-15 is commonly related to cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory activity and cardiac abnormalities. However, it is not clear whether it might be an indicator of vascular pathologies as well.Methods.Circulating levels of GDF-15 were measured in 1004 elderly community dwellers participating in the PIVUS study. The relations of GDF-15 to biomarkers of endothelial activation (E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), extracellular matrix degradation (MMP-9, TIMP-1), coagulatory activity (D-dimer, von Willebrand factor, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, factor VIIa), and fibrinolytic activity (PAI-1 activity, tPA-antigen) were assessed by multiple linear regressions.Results. The median GDF-15 level was 1135 ng/L. By linear correlation analysis, GDF-15 exhibited a moderate relation to von Willebrand factor (r = 0.30), and weak, albeit significant relations (r = 0.13-0.29) to E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, D-dimer, PAI-1 activity and tPA-antigen. The relations to the assessed biomarkers of endothelial activation, TIMP-1, D-dimer and von Willebrand factor remained significant applying multiple linear regression models adjusted for clinical covariates and echocardiographic data. There were no significant relations between GDF-15 and biomarkers solely reflecting coagulatory activity.Conclusions.In the elderly, GDF-15 reflects endothelial activation and vascular inflammation and thus, multiple pathways involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
  • Eriksson, Niclas, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of warfarin maintenance dose and time in therapeutic treatment range : a RE-LY genomics substudy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenomics (London). - : Future Medicine Ltd. - 1462-2416 .- 1744-8042. ; 17:13, s. 1425-1439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: We investigated associations between genetic variation in candidate genes and on a genome-wide scale with warfarin maintenance dose, time in therapeutic range (TTR), and risk of major bleeding. Materials & methods: In total, 982 warfarin-treated patients from the RE-LY trial were studied. Results: After adjusting for SNPs in VKORC1 and CYP2C9, SNPs in DDHD1 (rs17126068) and NEDD4 (rs2288344) were associated with dose. Adding these SNPs and CYP4F2 (rs2108622) to a base model increased R-2 by 2.9%. An SNP in ASPH (rs4379440) was associated with TTR (-6.8% per minor allele). VKORC1 was associated with time less than INR 2.0. VKORC1 and CYP2C9 were associated with time more than INR 3.0, but not with major bleeding. Conclusions: We identified two novel genes associated with warfarin maintenance dose and one gene associated with TTR. These genes need to be replicated in an independent cohort.
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