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  • Eriksson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-talk between the Tissue Factor/coagulation factor VIIa complex and the tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 in cancer
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMC Cancer. - : Springer Science and Business Media LLC. - 1471-2407 .- 1471-2407. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tissue Factor (TF) forms a proteolytically active complex together with coagulation factor VIIa (FVIIa) and functions as the trigger of blood coagulation or alternatively activates cell signaling. We recently described that EphA2 of the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor family is cleaved directly by the TF/FVIIa complex. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the cross-talk between TF/FVIIa and EphA2 using in vitro model systems and human cancer specimens. Methods: Cleavage and phosphorylation of EphA2 was studied by Western blot. Subcellular localization of TF and EphA2 was investigated by a proximity ligation assay and confocal microscopy. Phalloidin staining of the actin cytoskeleton was used to study cell rounding and retraction fiber formation. Expression of TF and EphA2 in human colorectal cancer specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry. Results: TF and EphA2 co-localized constitutively in MDA-MB-231 cells, and addition of FVIIa resulted in cleavage of EphA2 by a PAR2-independent mechanism. Overexpression of TF in U251 glioblastoma cells lead to co-localization with EphA2 at the leading edge and FVIIa-dependent cleavage of EphA2. FVIIa potentiated ephrin-A1-induced cell rounding and retraction fiber formation in MDA-MB-231 cells through a RhoA/ROCK-dependent pathway that did not require PAR2-activation. TF and EphA2 were expressed in colorectal cancer specimens, and were significantly correlated. Conclusions: These results suggest that TF/FVIIa-EphA2 cross-talk might potentiate ligand-dependent EphA2 signaling in human cancers, and provide initial evidence that it is possible for this interaction to occur in vivo.
  • Eriksson, Oskar, 1984- (författare)
  • Studies on Tissue Factor with Focus on Cell Signaling and Cancer
  • 2015
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis have explored the functions of the protein Tissue Factor (TF), which together with its ligand coagulation factor VII/VIIa (FVII/FVIIa) forms a proteolytic complex that functions in initiation of blood coagulation and activation of cell signaling.In paper I, the mechanisms behind the observation that TF/FVIIa signaling protects cells from apoptosis were further investigated. Using cell culture models, we found that antiapoptotic signaling by TF/FVIIa requires signaling by the Insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R), as synthetic IGF-1R inhibitors and IGF1-R siRNA knock-down abolished the antiapoptotic effect of FVIIa. Furthermore, the IGF-1R translocated to the cell nucleus after FVIIa stimulation, implying a role in regulation of gene expression.Papers II and III describe the discovery that the Eph tyrosine kinase receptors EphB2 and EphA2 are proteolytically cleaved directly by TF/FVIIa. By using mass spectrometry and N-terminal Edman sequencing, the exact cleavage site was identified after a conserved arginine residue in the EphA2/EphB2 ligand binding domains, in agreement with the cleavage preferences of FVIIa. TF and EphA2/EphB2 co-localized in cancer cell lines and FVIIa potentiated ligand-dependent Eph signaling by increasing cytoskeletal remodeling and cell repulsion, demonstrating a novel proteolytical event that modulates Eph receptor signaling.In paper IV, expression of TF was investigated in colorectal cancer in both the stromal and tumor cell compartments by immunohistochemistry using an anti-TF-antibody developed and validated by the Human Protein Atlas project. In normal large intestine, TF was strongly expressed in the innermost pericryptal sheath cell layer lining the epithelium, in a cell population distinct from intestinal pericryptal myofibroblasts. We evaluated TF expression in two colorectal cancer materials, and found that TF was variably present in both the stromal and tumor cell compartments. TF expressed by pericryptal sheath cells was progressively lost after the adenoma-to-carcinoma transition and was a strong predictor of survival in rectal but not colon cancer patients independently of disease stage, histological tumor grade and age.In summary, this thesis demonstrates novel signaling mechanisms for the TF/FVIIa complex, and provides evidence of a hitherto unknown role of TF expressed by a specific population of stromal cells in colorectal cancer.
  • Eriksson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • The Eph Tyrosine Kinase Receptors EphB2 and EphA2 Are Novel Proteolytic Substrates of Tissue Factor/Coagulation Factor VIIa
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258 .- 1083-351X. ; 289:47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tissue factor (TF) binds the serine protease factor VIIa (FVIIa) to form a proteolytically active complex that can trigger coagulation or activate cell signaling. Here we addressed the involvement of tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) in TF/FVIIa signaling by antibody array analysis and subsequently found that EphB2 and EphA2 of the Eph RTK family were cleaved in their ectodomains by TF/FVIIa. We used N-terminal Edman sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis to characterize the cleaved Eph isoforms and identified a key arginine residue at the cleavage site, in agreement with the tryptic serine protease activity of FVIIa. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) signaling and downstream coagulation activity was non-essential in this context, in further support of a direct cleavage by TF/FVIIa. EphB2 was cleaved by FVIIa concentrations in the subnanomolar range in a number of TF expressing cell types, indicating that the active cellular pool of TF was involved. FVIIa caused potentiation of cell repulsion by the EphB2 ligand ephrin-B1, demonstrating a novel proteolytical event to control Eph-mediated cell segregation. These results define Eph RTKs as novel proteolytical targets of TF/FVIIa and provide new insights into how TF/FVIIa regulates cellular functions independently of PAR2.
  • Erlinge, David, et al. (författare)
  • Patients with poor responsiveness to thienopyridine treatment or with diabetes have lower levels of circulating active metabolite, but their platelets respond normally to active metabolite added ex vivo
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 52:24, s. 1968-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the prevalence and mechanism of poor responsiveness to clopidogrel and prasugrel in coronary artery disease patients with and without diabetes. BACKGROUND: Low platelet inhibition by clopidogrel is associated with ischemic clinical events. A higher 600-mg loading dose (LD) has been advocated to increase responsiveness to clopidogrel. METHODS: In this study, 110 aspirin-treated patients were randomized to double-blind treatment with clopidogrel 600 mg LD/75 mg maintenance dose (MD) for 28 days or prasugrel 60 mg LD/10 mg MD for 28 days. Pharmacodynamic (PD) response was evaluated by light transmission aggregometry and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation. The PD poor responsiveness was defined with 4 definitions previously associated with worse clinical outcomes. Active metabolites (AM) of clopidogrel and prasugrel were measured. Clopidogrel AM was added ex vivo. RESULTS: The proportion of patients with poor responsiveness was greater in the clopidogrel group for all definitions at all time points from 1 h to 29 days. Poor responders had significantly lower plasma AM levels compared with responders. Patients with diabetes were over-represented in the poor-responder groups and had significantly lower levels of AM. Platelets of both poor responders and diabetic patients responded fully to AM added ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Prasugrel treatment results in significantly fewer PD poor responders compared with clopidogrel after a 600-mg clopidogrel LD and during MD. The mechanism of incomplete platelet inhibition in clopidogrel poor-responder groups and in diabetic patients is lower plasma levels of its AM and not differences in platelet P2Y(12) receptor function.
  • Ernofsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Inhibition of tissue factor expression in human peripheral blood monocytes exposed to cytokines
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 95:2, s. 249-257
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) are known to regulate several monocyte functions, including inhibition of the synthesis of different cytokines. Using quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis we investigated the effects of these cytokines on bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor (TF) expression in human monocytes. The effects of IL-4 and IL-10 on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-and C-reactive protein (CRP)-induced TF expression were also studied. A direct comparison revealed that IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 all down-regulated LPS-induced TF expression in a concentration-dependent manner without the need for priming. In contrast, TGF-beta required 4 h of priming to inhibit TF expression induced by LPS. IL-10 was the most powerful inhibitor, causing almost complete inhibition at 5 ng/ml. IL-4 and IL-13 exhibited a significantly lower inhibitory capacity even at concentrations of 100 ng/ml. IL-4 and IL-10 showed similar concentration-dependent inhibition of MCP-1- and CRP-induced TF expression. We also showed that the regulatory effect of the interleukins occurred at the mRNA level. In vivo, these inhibitory cytokines may play an important regulatory role in preventing thrombosis. IL-10, in particular, may be a possible candidate as a TF-preventing drug.
  • Ernofsson, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Low-molecular Weight Heparin Reduces the Generation and Activity of Thrombin in Unstable Coronary Artery Disease
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - 0340-6245 .- 2567-689X. ; 79:3, s. 491-494
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Unstable coronary artery disease (UCAD) is associated with an increased risk of further coronary events. In the FRISC study, the risk was decreased during treatment with a high, twice-daily, dose of dalteparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin. However, lowering the dose resulted in raised risk of recurrences. To investigate the underlying pathophysiology, the thrombin generation and activity in patients with UCAD randomized to a 6-week placebo-controlled treatment with dalteparin were evaluated. Plasma prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) (n = 342), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) (n = 186) and soluble fibrin (SF) (n = 298) were analyzed before and during treatment with dalteparin/placebo administered subcutaneously, 120 IU/kg bw twice daily for 5-8 days and 7.500 IU once daily the following 35-40 days. High-dose treatment with dalteparin resulted in significantly reduced levels of all coagulation markers, demonstrating diminished thrombin generation and activity. When reducing the dalteparin dose, plasma TAT and SF remained low, indicating minimal fibrin formation. However, F1+2 increased during this period. though the level at day 45 was still lower than in the placebo group. In the placebo group elevated thrombin generation and activity persisted during the entire period. In conclusion, high-dose treatment with dalteparin twice daily resulted in significantly reduced thrombin generation and activity. However, after changing to a lower, once-daily dose, the treatment was not sufficient in preventing a return to a procoagulable state. These changes of the coagulation activity might explain the changes in event rate observed during dalteparin treatment.
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