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  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Growth differentiation factor-15 level predicts major bleeding and cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes : results from the PLATO study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 37:16, s. 1325-1333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) predicts death and composite cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the independent associations between GDF-15 levels and major bleeding, the extent of coronary lesions and individual CV events in patients with ACS. Methods and results Growth differentiation factor-15 was analysed at baseline (n = 16 876) in patients with ACS randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO (PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes) trial. Growth differentiation factor-15 levels were related to extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and to all types of non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related major bleeding, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death during 12-month follow-up. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for established risk factors for CV disease and prognostic biomarkers (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and high-sensitive troponin T), 1 SD increase in ln GDF-15 was associated with increased risk of major bleeding with a hazard ratio (HR) 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51) and with a similar increase in risk across different bleeding locations. For the same increase in ln GDF-15, the HR for the composite of CV death, spontaneous MI, and stroke was 1.29 (1.21-1.37), CV death 1.41 (1.30-1.53), all-cause death 1.41 (1.31-1.53), spontaneous MI 1.15 (1.05-1.26), and stroke 1.19 (1.01-1.42). The C-statistic improved for the prediction of CV death and non-CABG-related major bleeding when adding GDF-15 to established risk factors. Conclusions In patients with ACS, higher levels of GDF-15 are associated with raised risks of all types of major non-CABG-related bleeding, spontaneous MI, and stroke as well as CV and total mortality and seem to improve risk stratification for CV-mortality and major bleeding beyond established risk factors.
  • Hansen, Klaus, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation of a Src phosphorylation site in the PDGF beta-receptor leads to increased PDGF-stimulated chemotaxis but decreased mitogenesis
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: EMBO Journal. - 0261-4189 .- 1460-2075. ; 15:19, s. 5299-5313
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ligand induced activation of the beta-receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) leads to activation of Src family tyrosine kinases. We have explored the possibility that the receptor itself is a substrate for Src. We show that Tyr934 in the kinase domain of the PDGF receptor is phosphorylated by Src. Cell lines expressing a beta-receptor mutant, in which Tyr934 was replaced with a phenyalanine residue, showed reduced mitogenic signaling in response to PDGF-BB. In contrast, the mutant receptor mediated increased signals for chemotaxis and actin reorganization. Whereas the motility responses of cells expressing wild-type beta-receptors were attenuated by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, those of cells expressing the mutant receptor were only slightly influenced. In contrast, PDGF-BB-induced chemotaxis of the cells with the mutant receptor was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase C, whereas the chemotaxis of cells expressing the wild-type beta-receptor was less affected. Moreover, the PDGF-BB-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma was increased in the mutant receptor cells compared with wild-type receptor cells. In conclusion, the characteristics of the Y934F mutant suggest that the phosphorylation of Tyr934 by Src negatively modulates a signal transduction pathway leading to motility responses which involves phospholipase C-gamma, and shifts the response to increased mitogenicity.
  • Held, Claes, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammatory Biomarkers Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein and Outcomes in Stable Coronary Heart Disease : Experiences From the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) Trial
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundEvaluation of cardiovascular prognosis in patients with stable coronary heart disease is based on clinical characteristics and biomarkers indicating dysglycemia, dyslipidemia, renal dysfunction, and possibly cardiac dysfunction. Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis, but the association between inflammatory biomarkers and clinical outcomes is less studied in this population.Methods and ResultsOverall, 15 828 patients with coronary heart disease in the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial werer and randomized to treatment with darapladib or placebo and observed for a median of 3.7 years. In 14 611 patients, levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured in plasma samples: median levels were2.1 (interquartile range, 1.4-3.2) ng/Land1.3 (interquartile range, 0.6-3.1) mg/L, respectively. Associations between continuous levels or quartile groups and adjudicated outcomes were evaluated by spline graphs and Cox regression adjusted for clinical factors and cardiovascular biomarkers. IL-6 was associated with increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (quartile 4 versus quartile 1 hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30-1.97; P< 0.0001); cardiovascular death (HR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.53-3.04; P< 0.0001); myocardial infarction (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.14-2.04; P< 0.05); all-cause mortality (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.62-2.76; P< 0.0001); and risk of hospitalization for heart failure (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.34-3.89; P< 0.001). Cancer death was doubled in the highest IL-6 quartile group (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.20-4.53; P< 0.05). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was associated with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events in the unadjusted model, but these did not remain after multivariable adjustments.ConclusionsIL-6, an upstream inflammatory marker, was independently associated with the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and cancer mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. IL-6 might reflect a pathophysiological process involved in the development of these events.
  • Heldin, Carl-Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Platelet-derived growth factor : isoform-specific signalling via heterodimeric or homodimeric receptor complexes
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Kidney International. - : Elsevier BV. - 0085-2538 .- 1523-1755. ; 41:3, s. 571-574
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt/konstnärligt)abstract
    • Growth factors are polypeptides that are involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, such as, during the embryonal development, in wound healing, in hematopoiesis, in the immune response, as well as in several adverse reactions including malignancies. Several families of structurally-related growth factors are known; new members of these families continue to be discovered and occasionally new families are found. One of the best characterized growth factor family is the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family. PDGF was originally found to be present in the alpha-granules of platelets and to have growth promoting activity for fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells; subsequent studies have shown that PDGF is synthesized by a large number of different normal as well as transformed cell types, and that it acts not only on connective tissue cells but also on other types of cells [reviewed in 1, 2]. The present review summarizes some recent developments in the elucidation of the structural and functional properties of PDGF and PDGF receptors, the mechanism for PDGF signalling at the cellular level and the possible in vivo effects of PDGF.
  • Helenius, Gisela, 1973, et al. (författare)
  • Expression of fibrinolytic and coagulation factors in cocultured human endothelial and smooth muscle cells
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Tissue engineering. - 1076-3279. ; 10:3-4, s. 353-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interactions between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells are interesting from a tissue-engineering point of view. We have developed a coculture system that allows direct contact between these two cell types. The fibrinolytic factors PAI-1, tPA, and uPA and the coagulation factor TF, were studied at the gene level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by ELISA. Significant changes of all studied factors were seen at the gene level in cocultured endothelial cells. tPA and TF were upregulated 4- and 7-fold, respectively, and PAI-1 and uPA were downregulated 4- and 1.5-fold, respectively, compared with single-cultured controls. In cocultured smooth muscle cells alterations of PAI-1 and TF were significant, with a 1.5-fold upregulation of PAI-1 and a 2.5-fold downregulation of TF. Results at the protein level mirrored the gene expression results. These findings indicate that cocultured endothelial cells are rendered both hypercoagulative and hyperfibrinolytic.
  • Helseth, Ragnhild, et al. (författare)
  • Associations between circulating proteins and corresponding genes expressed in coronary thrombi in patients with acute myocardial infarction
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0049-3848 .- 1879-2472. ; 136:6, s. 1240-1244
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Several genes are expressed in aspirated coronary thrombi in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), exhibiting dynamic changes along ischemic time. Whether soluble biomarkers reflect the local gene environment and ischemic time is unclear. We explored whether circulating biomarkers were associated with corresponding coronary thrombi genes and total ischemic time. Material and methods: In 33 AMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), blood samples were collected within 6-24 h for markers related to plaque rupture (metalloproteinase 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1), platelet and endothelial cell activation (P-selectin, CD40 ligand, PAR-1), hemostasis (tissue factor, tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, free and total tissue factor pathway inhibitor, D-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2), inflammation (interleukin 8 and 18, fractalkine, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), CXCL1, pentraxin 3, myeloperoxidase) and galectin 3, caspase 8 and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Laboratory analyses were performed by Proximity Extension Assay (Proseek Multiplex CVD I-96 (x 96)), ELISAs and RT-PCR. Results: Only circulating P-selectin correlated to the corresponding P-selectin gene expression in thrombi (r = 0.530, p = 0.002). Plasma galectin 3, fractalkine, MCP-1 and caspase 8 correlated inversely to ischemic time (r = -0.38-0.50, all p < 0.05), while plasma MCP-1, galectin 3 and EGF were higher at short (<= 4 h) vs. long (>4 h) ischemic time (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The dynamic changes in circulating mediators along ischemic time were not reflected in the profile of locally expressed genes. These observations indicate a locally confined milieu within the site of atherothrombosis, which may be important for selective therapy.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • A biomarker-based risk score to predict death in patients with atrial fibrillation : the ABC (age, biomarkers, clinical history) death risk score
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:6, s. 477-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: In atrial fibrillation (AF), mortality remains high despite effective anticoagulation. A model predicting the risk of death in these patients is currently not available. We developed and validated a risk score for death in anticoagulated patients with AF including both clinical information and biomarkers.Methods and results: The new risk score was developed and internally validated in 14 611 patients with AF randomized to apixaban vs. warfarin for a median of 1.9 years. External validation was performed in 8548 patients with AF randomized to dabigatran vs. warfarin for 2.0 years. Biomarker samples were obtained at study entry. Variables significantly contributing to the prediction of all-cause mortality were assessed by Cox-regression. Each variable obtained a weight proportional to the model coefficients. There were 1047 all-cause deaths in the derivation and 594 in the validation cohort. The most important predictors of death were N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin-T, growth differentiation factor-15, age, and heart failure, and these were included in the ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical history)-death risk score. The score was well-calibrated and yielded higher c-indices than a model based on all clinical variables in both the derivation (0.74 vs. 0.68) and validation cohorts (0.74 vs. 0.67). The reduction in mortality with apixaban was most pronounced in patients with a high ABC-death score.Conclusion: A new biomarker-based score for predicting risk of death in anticoagulated AF patients was developed, internally and externally validated, and well-calibrated in two large cohorts. The ABC-death risk score performed well and may contribute to overall risk assessment in AF.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • Application of Biomarkers for Risk Stratification in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Chemistry. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0009-9147 .- 1530-8561. ; 63:11, s. 152-164
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several strategies have been proposed for prediction of outcomes and individualization of treatments to better balance the benefits of stroke prevention and risks of bleeding during anticoagulation. CONTENT: The availability of analytically more specific and sensitive methods to measure circulating biomarkers of cellular and organ stress and dysfunction has led to testing of their utility in several cardiovascular conditions. In patients with atrial fibrillation, biomarkers of myocardial injury (troponin) and cardiovascular stress and dysfunction (natriuretic peptides, growth differentiation factor 15), myocardial fibrosis (galectin-3), renal dysfunction (creatinine, cystatin C), inflammation (C reactive protein, cytokines) and coagulation activity (D-dimer) have been found associated with underlying pathophysiology, clinical outcomes and effects of treatment. Measurements of these markers might therefore expand the understanding of the pathophysiology, improve risk assessment and optimize treatment in individual patients with atrial fibrillation. SUMMARY: Biomarkers for risk stratification have potential roles as tools for evaluation of patients with atrial fibrillation and for selection of the best treatment strategies to prevent stroke, major bleeding, and mortality.
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