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Sökning: WFRF:(Siegbahn Agneta) > (2020-2023)

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  • Attelind, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of apixaban plasma levels and their relationship to bleeding and thromboembolic events
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Genetics. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-8021. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Apixaban is a direct oral anticoagulant, a factor Xa inhibitor, used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite using recommended dosing a few patients might still experience bleeding or lack of efficacy that might be related to inappropriate drug exposure. We conducted a genome-wide association study using data from 1,325 participants in the pivotal phase three trial of apixaban with the aim to identify genetic factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of apixaban. A candidate gene analysis was also performed for pre-specified variants in ABCB1, ABCG2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SULT1A1, with a subsequent analysis of all available polymorphisms within the candidate genes. Significant findings were further evaluated to assess a potential association with clinical outcome such as bleeding or thromboembolic events. No variant was consistently associated with an altered apixaban exposure on a genome-wide level. The candidate gene analyses showed a statistically significant association with a well-known variant in the drug transporter gene ABCG2 (c.421G > T, rs2231142). Patients carrying this variant had a higher exposure to apixaban [area under the curve (AUC), beta = 151 (95% CI 59-243), p = 0.001]. On average, heterozygotes displayed a 5% increase of AUC and homozygotes a 17% increase of AUC, compared with homozygotes for the wild-type allele. Bleeding or thromboembolic events were not significantly associated with ABCG2 rs2231142. This large genome-wide study demonstrates that genetic variation in the drug transporter gene ABCG2 is associated with the pharmacokinetics of apixaban. However, the influence of this finding on drug exposure was small, and further studies are needed to better understand whether it is of relevance for ischemic and bleeding events.
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers and heart failure events in patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE trial evaluated by a multi-state model
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 251, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) often coexist. We investigated the prognostic impact of biomarkers on the development of HF and death in patients with AF and different left ventricular systolic function considering the influence of competing events.MethodsThe study included 11,818 patients with AF from the ARISTOTLE trial who at entry had information on history of HF, an estimate of left ventricular function and plasma samples for determination of biomarkers representing cardiorenal dysfunction (NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C) and inflammation (GDF-15, IL-6, CRP). Patients were categorized into: (I) HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, n = 2,048), (II) HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, n = 2,520), and (III) No HF (n = 7,250). Biomarker associations with HF hospitalization and death were analyzed using a multi-state model accounting also for repeated events.ResultsBaseline levels of NT-proBNP, troponin T, cystatin C, GDF-15, IL-6, and CRP were highest in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. During median 1.9 years follow-up, 546 patients were hospitalized at least once for HF and 819 died. Higher levels of all investigated biomarkers were associated with both outcomes (all P < .0001), with highest event rates in HFrEF and lowest in No HF. The associations remained after adjustments and were more pronounced for first than for recurrent events.ConclusionsIn anticoagulated patients with AF, biomarkers indicating cardiorenal dysfunction and inflammation improve the identification of patients at risk of developing HF or worsening of already existing HF. These biomarkers might be useful for targeting novel HF therapies in patients with AF.
  • Aulin, Julia, et al. (författare)
  • Serial measurement of interleukin-6 and risk of mortality in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation : Insights from ARISTOTLE and RE-LY trials.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Elsevier BV. - 1538-7933 .- 1538-7836. ; 18:9, s. 2287-2295
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The inflammatory biomarker interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with mortality in atrial fibrillation (AF).OBJECTIVE: To investigate if repeated IL-6 measurements improve the prognostication for stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and mortality in anticoagulated patients with AF.METHODS: IL-6 levels by ELISA were measured at study entry and at 2 months in 4830 patients in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) trial with 1.8 years median follow-up. In the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial, IL-6 was measured at study entry, 3, 6, and 12 months in 2559 patients with 2.0 years median follow-up. Associations between a second IL-6 measurement and outcomes, adjusted for baseline IL-6, clinical variables, and other cardiovascular biomarkers, were analyzed by Cox regression.RESULTS: Median IL-6 levels were 2.0 ng/L (interquartile range [IQR] 1.30-3.20) and 2.10 ng/L (IQR 1.40-3.40) at the two time-points in ARISTOTLE, and, in RE-LY, 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.3), 2.5 ng/L (IQR 1.6-4.2), 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.6, 3.9), and 2.4 ng/L (IQR 1.5, 3.9), respectively. IL-6 was associated with mortality; hazard ratios per 50% higher IL-6 at 2 or 3 months, respectively, were 1.32 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.41; P < .0001) in ARISTOTLE, and 1.11 (1.01-1.22, P = .0290) in RE-LY; with improved C index from 0.74 to 0.76 in ARISTOTLE, but not in the smaller RE-LY cohort. There were no consistent associations with second IL-6 and stroke or systemic embolism, or major bleeding.CONCLUSIONS: Persistent systemic inflammatory activity, assessed by repeated IL-6 measurements, is associated with mortality independent of established clinical risk factors and other strong cardiovascular biomarkers in anticoagulated patients with AF.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-Based Prediction of Recurrent Ischemic Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 80:18, s. 1735-1747
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there is residual and variable risk of recurrent ischemic events.OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to develop biomarker-based prediction models for 1-year risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.METHODS: We included 10,713 patients from the PLATO (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial in the development cohort and externally validated in 3,508 patients from the TRACER (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial. Variables contributing to risk of CV death/MI were assessed using Cox regression models, and a score was derived using subsets of variables approximating the full model.RESULTS: There were 632 and 190 episodes of CV death/MI in the development and validation cohorts. The most important predictors of CV death/MI were the biomarkers, growth differentiation factor 15, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, which had greater prognostic value than all candidate variables. The final model included 8 items: age (A), biomarkers (B) (growth differentiation factor 15 and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and clinical variables (C) (extent of coronary artery disease, previous vascular disease, Killip class, ACS type, P2Y12 inhibitor). The model, named ABC-ACS ischemia, was well calibrated and showed good discriminatory ability for 1-year risk of CV death/MI with C-indices of 0.71 and 0.72 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. For CV death, the score performed better, with C-indices of 0.80 and 0.84 in the development and validation cohorts, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: An 8-item score for the prediction of CV death/MI was developed and validated for patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The ABC-ACS ischemia score showed good calibration and discrimination and might be useful for risk prediction and decision support in patients with ACS. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872; Trial to Assess the Effects of Vorapaxar [SCH 530348; MK-5348] in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Participants With Acute Coronary Syndrome [TRACER]; NCT00527943)
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of early myocardial reperfusion and perfusion on myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation in patients with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome : results from the PLATelet inhibition and patients Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 11:4, s. 336-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Restoration of myocardial blood flow and perfusion during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) measured using Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade (TFG) and perfusion grade (TMPG) is associated with improved outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarkers reflecting myocardial damage/dysfunction and inflammation is unknown. Methods and results Among 2606 patients included, TFG was evaluated in 2198 and TMPG in 1874 with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment ACS (NSTE-ACS). Biomarkers reflecting myocardial necrosis [troponin T (TnT)], myocardial dysfunction [N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP)], inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and oxidative stress/ageing/inflammation [growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15)] were measured at baseline, discharge, and 1- and 6-month post-randomization. Associations between TFG/TMPG and changes in biomarker levels were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon signed test. In total, 1423 (54.6%) patients had STEMI and 1183 (45.4%) NSTE-ACS. Complete reperfusion after PCI with TFG = 3 was achieved in 1110 (85.3%) with STEMI and in 793 (88.5%) with NSTE-ACS. Normal myocardial perfusion with TMPG = 3 was achieved in 475 (41.6%) with STEMI and in 396 (54.0%) with NSTE-ACS. Levels of TnT, NT-proBNP, IL-6, CRP, and GDF-15 were substantially lower at discharge in patients with complete vs. incomplete TFG and STEMI (P < 0.01). This pattern was not observed for patients with NSTE-ACS. Patients with normal vs. abnormal TMPG and NSTE-ACS had lower levels of NT-proBNP at discharge (P = 0.01). Conclusions Successful restoration of epicardial blood flow in STEMI was associated with less myocardial necrosis/dysfunction and inflammation. Attainment of normal myocardial perfusion was associated with less myocardial dysfunction in NSTE-ACS.
  • Batra, Gorav, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin 6 and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Chronic Coronary Syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: JAMA cardiology. - : American Medical Association (AMA). - 2380-6583 .- 2380-6591. ; 6:12, s. 1440-1445
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease and anti-inflammatory treatment reduces cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is unclear how inflammation mediated by interleukin 6 (IL-6) in patients with CKD is linked to cardiovascular disease.Objective: To investigate associations between IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic coronary syndrome in association with kidney function.Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included patients enrolled at 663 centers in 39 countries with chronic coronary syndrome who were included in the Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy (STABILITY) trial. Patients were enrolled between December 2008 and April 2010 and were followed up for a median length of 3.7 years. Analysis in this substudy began September 2020.Exposures: Exposures were IL-6 and creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), which were collected at baseline. Associations between continuous and categorical levels (<2.0 ng/L vs ≥2.0 ng/L) of IL-6 and cardiovascular outcomes were tested in association with eGFR cutoffs (normal eGFR level [≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2], mildly decreased eGFR level [60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2], and moderately to severely decreased eGFR level [<60 mL/min/1.73 m2]).Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke.Results: This substudy of the STABILITY trial included 14 611 patients with available IL-6 levels at baseline. The median (interquartile range) age was 65 (59-71) years, and 2700 (18.5%) were female. During follow-up, MACE occurred in 1459 individuals (10.0%). Higher levels of IL-6 were in continuous models independently associated with risk of MACE (P < .001) in all CKD strata. Using predefined strata, elevated IL-6 level (≥2.0 vs <2.0 ng/L) was associated with increased risk of MACE at normal kidney function (2.9% vs 1.9% events/y [hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.78]), mild CKD (3.3% vs 1.9% [hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.35-1.83]), and moderate to severe CKD (5.0% vs 2.9% [hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.28-1.99]).Conclusions and Relevance: In patients with chronic coronary syndrome, elevated levels of IL-6 were associated with risk of MACE in all CKD strata. Thus, IL-6 and CKD stage may help when identifying patients with chronic coronary syndrome for anti-inflammatory treatment.
  • Benz, Alexander P., et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker-Based Risk Prediction With the ABC-AF Scores in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Not Receiving Oral Anticoagulation
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 143:19, s. 1863-1873
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The novel ABC (Age, Biomarkers, Clinical History) scores outperform traditional risk scores for stroke, major bleeding, and death in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving oral anticoagulation. To refine their utility, the ABC-AF scores needed to be validated in patients not receiving oral anticoagulation.Methods: We measured plasma levels of the ABC biomarkers (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin-T, and growth-differentiation factor 15) to apply the previously developed ABC-AF scores in patients with AF receiving aspirin (n=3195) or aspirin and clopidogrel (n=1110) in 2 large clinical trials. Calibration was assessed by comparing estimated with observed 1-year risks. Cox regression models were used for recalibration. Discrimination was evaluated separately for the aspirin-only and the overall cohort (n=4305).Results: The ABC-AF-stroke score yielded a c-index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.67-0.73) in both cohorts. The ABC-AF-bleeding score had a c-index of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.71-0.81) in the aspirin-only cohort and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) overall. Both scores were superior to risk scores recommended by current guidelines. The ABC-AF-death score yielded a c-index of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.76-0.80) overall. Calibrated in patients receiving oral anticoagulation, the ABC-AF-stroke score underestimated and the ABC-AF-bleeding score overestimated the risk of events in both cohorts. These scores were recalibrated for prediction of absolute event rates in the absence of oral anticoagulation.Conclusions: The biomarker-based ABC-AF scores showed better discrimination than traditional risk scores and were recalibrated for precise risk estimation in patients not receiving oral anticoagulation. They can now provide improved decision support on treatment of an individual patient with AF.
  • Benz, Alexander P., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma angiopoietin-2 and its association with heart failure in patients with atrial fibrillation
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Europace. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 1099-5129 .- 1532-2092. ; 25:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Several biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but a causal relationship has not been established. This study aimed to evaluate angiopoietin-2, a novel candidate biomarker of endothelial inflammation and vascular remodelling, in patients with AF.Methods and results: Angiopoietin-2 was measured in plasma obtained from patients with AF treated with aspirin monotherapy (exploration cohort, n = 2987) or with oral anticoagulation (validation cohort, n = 13 079). Regression models were built to assess the associations between angiopoietin-2, clinical characteristics, and outcomes. In both cohorts, plasma angiopoietin-2 was independently associated with AF on the baseline electrocardiogram and persistent/permanent AF, age, history of heart failure, female sex, tobacco use/smoking, body mass index, renal dysfunction, diabetes, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Angiopoietin-2 was independently associated with subsequent hospitalization for heart failure after adjusting for age, creatinine, and clinical characteristics in the exploration cohort [c-index 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-0.82; third vs. first quartile, hazard ratio (HR) 1.74, 95% CI 1.26-2.41] and in the validation cohort (c-index 0.76, 95% CI 0.74-0.78; HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.37-1.82). In both cohorts, the association persisted when also adjusting for NT-proBNP (P & LE; 0.001). In full multivariable models also adjusted for NT-proBNP, angiopoietin-2 did not show statistically significant associations with ischaemic stroke, cardiovascular and all-cause death, or major bleeding that were consistent across the two cohorts.Conclusions: In patients with AF, plasma levels of angiopoietin-2 were independently associated with subsequent hospitalization for heart failure and provided incremental prognostic value to clinical risk factors and NT-proBNP.
  • Christersson, Christina, et al. (författare)
  • Screening for Biomarkers Associated with Left Ventricular Function During Follow-up After Acute Coronary Syndrome
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. - : Springer Nature. - 1937-5387 .- 1937-5395. ; 16:1, s. 244-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A proportion of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) will suffer progressive remodeling of the left ventricular (LV). The aim was to screen for important biomarkers from a large-scale protein profiling in 420 ACS patients and define biomarkers associated with reduced LV function early and 1 year after the ACS. Transferrin receptor protein 1 and NT-proBNP were associated with LV function early and after 1 year, whereas osteopontin and soluble ST2 were associated with LV function in the early phase and, tissue-type plasminogen activator after 1 year. Fatty-acid-binding protein and galectin 3 were related to worse GLS but not to LVEF 1 year after the ACS. Proteins involved in remodeling and iron transport in cardiomyocytes were related to worse LV function after ACS. Biomarkers for energy metabolism and fibrosis were exclusively related to worse LV function by GLS. Studies on the functions of these proteins might add knowledge to the biological processes involved in heart failure in long term after ACS.
  • d'Alessandro, Elisa, et al. (författare)
  • Thrombo-Inflammation in Cardiovascular Disease : An Expert Consensus Document from the Third Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - : Georg Thieme Verlag KG. - 0340-6245 .- 2567-689X. ; 120:4, s. 538-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Thrombo-inflammation describes the complex interplay between blood coagulation and inflammation that plays a critical role in cardiovascular diseases. The third Maastricht Consensus Conference on Thrombosis assembled basic, translational, and clinical scientists to discuss the origin and potential consequences of thrombo-inflammation in the etiology, diagnostics, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease, including myocardial infarction, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. This article presents a state-of-the-art reflection of expert opinions and consensus recommendations regarding the following topics: (1) challenges of the endothelial cell barrier; (2) circulating cells and thrombo-inflammation, focused on platelets, neutrophils, and neutrophil extracellular traps; (3) procoagulant mechanisms; (4) arterial vascular changes in atherogenesis; attenuating atherosclerosis and ischemia/reperfusion injury; (5) management of patients with arterial vascular disease; and (6) pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and late consequences of venous thromboembolism.
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