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Sökning: WFRF:(Siscovick David S.) > (2010-2014)

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  • Föregående 123[4]
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31.
  • Voight, Benjamin F., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 380:9841, s. 572-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the hypothesis that the association of a plasma biomarker with disease is causal. Methods We performed two mendelian randomisation analyses. First, we used as an instrument a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the endothelial lipase gene (LIPG Asn396Ser) and tested this SNP in 20 studies (20 913 myocardial infarction cases, 95 407 controls). Second, we used as an instrument a genetic score consisting of 14 common SNPs that exclusively associate with HDL cholesterol and tested this score in up to 12 482 cases of myocardial infarction and 41 331 controls. As a positive control, we also tested a genetic score of 13 common SNPs exclusively associated with LDL cholesterol. Findings Carriers of the LIPG 396Ser allele (2.6% frequency) had higher HDL cholesterol (0.14 mmol/L higher, p=8x10(-13)) but similar levels of other lipid and non-lipid risk factors for myocardial infarction compared with non-carriers. This difference in HDL cholesterol is expected to decrease risk of myocardial infarction by 13% (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91). However, we noted that the 396Ser allele was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88-1.11, p=0.85). From observational epidemiology, an increase of 1 SD in HDL cholesterol was associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.58-0.66). However, a 1 SD increase in HDL cholesterol due to genetic score was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68-1.26, p=0.63). For LDL cholesterol, the estimate from observational epidemiology (a 1 SD increase in LDL cholesterol associated with OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.45-1.63) was concordant with that from genetic score (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.69, p=2x10(-10)). Interpretation Some genetic mechanisms that raise plasma HDL cholesterol do not seem to lower risk of myocardial infarction. These data challenge the concept that raising of plasma HDL cholesterol will uniformly translate into reductions in risk of myocardial infarction.
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32.
  • McGovern, Dermot P B, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 42:4, s. 332-337
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ulcerative colitis is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with a complex genetic and environmental etiology. In an effort to identify genetic variation underlying ulcerative colitis risk, we present two distinct genome-wide association studies of ulcerative colitis and their joint analysis with a previously published scan, comprising, in aggregate, 2,693 individuals with ulcerative colitis and 6,791 control subjects. Fifty-nine SNPs from 14 independent loci attained an association significance of P < 10(-5). Seven of these loci exceeded genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10(-8)). After testing an independent cohort of 2,009 cases of ulcerative colitis and 1,580 controls, we identified 13 loci that were significantly associated with ulcerative colitis (P < 5 x 10(-8)), including the immunoglobulin receptor gene FCGR2A, 5p15, 2p16 and ORMDL3 (orosomucoid1-like 3). We confirmed association with 14 previously identified ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci, and an analysis of acknowledged Crohn's disease loci showed that roughly half of the known Crohn's disease associations are shared with ulcerative colitis. These data implicate approximately 30 loci in ulcerative colitis, thereby providing insight into disease pathogenesis.
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35.
  • Padmanabhan, Sandosh, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Study of Blood Pressure Extremes Identifies Variant near UMOD Associated with Hypertension
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1553-7404. ; 6:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypertension is a heritable and major contributor to the global burden of disease. The sum of rare and common genetic variants robustly identified so far explain only 1%-2% of the population variation in BP and hypertension. This suggests the existence of more undiscovered common variants. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1,621 hypertensive cases and 1,699 controls and follow-up validation analyses in 19,845 cases and 16,541 controls using an extreme case-control design. We identified a locus on chromosome 16 in the 59 region of Uromodulin (UMOD; rs13333226, combined P value of 3.6x10(-11)). The minor G allele is associated with a lower risk of hypertension (OR [95% CI]: 0.87 [0.84-0.91]), reduced urinary uromodulin excretion, better renal function; and each copy of the G allele is associated with a 7.7% reduction in risk of CVD events after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, and smoking status (H.R. = 0.923, 95% CI 0.860-0.991; p = 0.027). In a subset of 13,446 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) measurements, we show that rs13333226 is independently associated with hypertension (unadjusted for eGFR: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p = 0.004; after eGFR adjustment: 0.89 [0.83-0.96], p = 0.003). In clinical functional studies, we also consistently show the minor G allele is associated with lower urinary uromodulin excretion. The exclusive expression of uromodulin in the thick portion of the ascending limb of Henle suggests a putative role of this variant in hypertension through an effect on sodium homeostasis. The newly discovered UMOD locus for hypertension has the potential to give new insights into the role of uromodulin in BP regulation and to identify novel drugable targets for reducing cardiovascular risk.
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36.
  • Speliotes, Elizabeth K, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies variants associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that have distinct effects on metabolic traits.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 7:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) clusters in families, but the only known common genetic variants influencing risk are near PNPLA3. We sought to identify additional genetic variants influencing NAFLD using genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis, a non-invasive measure of NAFLD, in large population based samples. Using variance components methods, we show that CT hepatic steatosis is heritable (∼26%-27%) in family-based Amish, Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies (n = 880 to 3,070). By carrying out a fixed-effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results between CT hepatic steatosis and ∼2.4 million imputed or genotyped SNPs in 7,176 individuals from the Old Order Amish, Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study (AGES), Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies, we identify variants associated at genome-wide significant levels (p<5×10(-8)) in or near PNPLA3, NCAN, and PPP1R3B. We genotype these and 42 other top CT hepatic steatosis-associated SNPs in 592 subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD from the NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN). In comparisons with 1,405 healthy controls from the Myocardial Genetics Consortium (MIGen), we observe significant associations with histologic NAFLD at variants in or near NCAN, GCKR, LYPLAL1, and PNPLA3, but not PPP1R3B. Variants at these five loci exhibit distinct patterns of association with serum lipids, as well as glycemic and anthropometric traits. We identify common genetic variants influencing CT-assessed steatosis and risk of NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis associated variants are not uniformly associated with NASH/fibrosis or result in abnormalities in serum lipids or glycemic and anthropometric traits, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in the pathways influencing these traits.
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37.
  • Tanaka, Toshiko, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 1938-3207 .- 0002-9165. ; 97:6, s. 1395-1402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake. Design: We performed 2-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of macronutrient intake in populations of European descent. Macronutrients were assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires and analyzed as percentages of total energy consumption from total fat, protein, and carbohydrate. From the discovery GWA (n = 38,360), 35 independent loci associated with macronutrient intake at P < 5 x 10(-6) were identified and taken forward to replication in 3 additional cohorts (n = 33,533) from the DietGen Consortium. For one locus, fat mass obesity-associated protein (FTO), cohorts with Illumina MetaboChip genotype data (n 7724) provided additional replication data. Results: A variant in the chromosome 19 locus (rs838145) was associated with higher carbohydrate (beta +/- SE: 0.25 +/- 0.04%; P = 1.68 x 10(-8)) and lower fat (beta = SE: -0.21 +/- 0.04%; P = 1.57 x 10(-9)) consumption. A candidate gene in this region, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), encodes a fibroblast growth factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The variants in this locus were associated with circulating FGF21 protein concentrations (P < 0.05) but not mRNA concentrations in blood or brain. The body mass index (BMI) increasing allele of the FTO variant (rs1421085) was associated with higher protein intake (beta +/- SE: 0.10 +/- 0.02%; P = 9.96 x 10(-10)), independent of BMI (after adjustment for BMI, beta +/- SE: 0.08 +/- 0.02%; P = 3.15 x 10(-7)). Conclusion: Our results indicate that variants in genes involved in nutrient metabolism and obesity are associated with macronutrient consumption in humans. Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Triglycerides), NCT01331512 (InCHIANTI Study), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
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38.
  • Jensen, Richard A., et al. (författare)
  • HLA Genes, Islet Autoantibodies and Residual C-Peptide at the Clinical Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk of Retinopathy 15 Years Later
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 6:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/Hypothesis: HLA genes, islet autoantibodies and residual C-peptide were studied to determine the independent association of each exposure with diabetic retinopathy (DR), 15 years after the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes in 15-34 year old individuals. Methods: The cohort was identified in 1992 and 1993 by the Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS), which investigates incident cases of diabetes for patients between 15 and 34 years of age. Blood samples at diagnosis were analyzed to determine HLA genotype, islet autoantibodies and serum C-peptide. In 2009, fundus photographs were obtained from patient records. Study measures were supplemented with data from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry. Results: The prevalence of DR was 60.2% (148/246). Autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) at the onset of clinical diabetes increased the risk of DR 15 years later, relative risk 1.12 for each 100 WHO units/ml, [95% CI 1.02 to 1.23]. This equates to risk estimates of 1.27, [95% CI 1.04 to 1.62] and 1.43, [95% CI 1.06 to 1.94] for participants in the highest 25(th) (GADA. 233 WHO units/ml) and 5(th) percentile (GADA. 319 WHO units/ml) of GADA, respectively. These were adjusted for duration of diabetes, HbA(1c), treated hypertension, sex, age at diagnosis, HLA and C-peptide. Islet cell autoantibodies, insulinoma-antigen 2 autoantibodies, residual C-peptide and the type 1 diabetes associated haplotypes DQ2, DQ8 and DQ6 were not associated with DR. Conclusions: Increased levels of GADA at the onset of type 1 diabetes were associated with DR 15 years later. These results, if confirmed, could provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and lead to better risk stratification for both patient screenings and DR treatment trials.
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  • Föregående 123[4]
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