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Sökning: WFRF:(Siscovick David S.)

  • Resultat 61-67 av 67
  • Föregående 123456[7]
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61.
  • Robinson-Cohen, Cassianne, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Variants Associated with Circulating Parathyroid Hormone.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. - 1533-3450. ; 28:5, s. 1553-1565
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a primary calcium regulatory hormone. Elevated serum PTH concentrations in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism have been associated with bone disease, hypertension, and in some studies, cardiovascular mortality. Genetic causes of variation in circulating PTH concentrations are incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of serum PTH concentrations among 29,155 participants of European ancestry from 13 cohort studies (n=22,653 and n=6502 in discovery and replication analyses, respectively). We evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with natural log-transformed PTH concentration adjusted for age, sex, season, study site, and principal components of ancestry. We discovered associations of SNPs from five independent regions with serum PTH concentration, including the strongest association with rs6127099 upstream of CYP24A1 (P=4.2 × 10(-53)), a gene that encodes the primary catabolic enzyme for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Each additional copy of the minor allele at this SNP associated with 7% higher serum PTH concentration. The other SNPs associated with serum PTH concentration included rs4074995 within RGS14 (P=6.6 × 10(-17)), rs219779 adjacent to CLDN14 (P=3.5 × 10(-16)), rs4443100 near RTDR1 (P=8.7 × 10(-9)), and rs73186030 near CASR (P=4.8 × 10(-8)). Of these five SNPs, rs6127099, rs4074995, and rs219779 replicated. Thus, common genetic variants located near genes involved in vitamin D metabolism and calcium and renal phosphate transport associated with differences in circulating PTH concentrations. Future studies could identify the causal variants at these loci, and the clinical and functional relevance of these variants should be pursued.
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62.
  • Speliotes, Elizabeth K, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies variants associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that have distinct effects on metabolic traits.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS genetics. - 1553-7404. ; 7:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) clusters in families, but the only known common genetic variants influencing risk are near PNPLA3. We sought to identify additional genetic variants influencing NAFLD using genome-wide association (GWA) analysis of computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis, a non-invasive measure of NAFLD, in large population based samples. Using variance components methods, we show that CT hepatic steatosis is heritable (∼26%-27%) in family-based Amish, Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies (n = 880 to 3,070). By carrying out a fixed-effects meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results between CT hepatic steatosis and ∼2.4 million imputed or genotyped SNPs in 7,176 individuals from the Old Order Amish, Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study (AGES), Family Heart, and Framingham Heart Studies, we identify variants associated at genome-wide significant levels (p<5×10(-8)) in or near PNPLA3, NCAN, and PPP1R3B. We genotype these and 42 other top CT hepatic steatosis-associated SNPs in 592 subjects with biopsy-proven NAFLD from the NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN). In comparisons with 1,405 healthy controls from the Myocardial Genetics Consortium (MIGen), we observe significant associations with histologic NAFLD at variants in or near NCAN, GCKR, LYPLAL1, and PNPLA3, but not PPP1R3B. Variants at these five loci exhibit distinct patterns of association with serum lipids, as well as glycemic and anthropometric traits. We identify common genetic variants influencing CT-assessed steatosis and risk of NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis associated variants are not uniformly associated with NASH/fibrosis or result in abnormalities in serum lipids or glycemic and anthropometric traits, suggesting genetic heterogeneity in the pathways influencing these traits.
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63.
  • Tanaka, Toshiko, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 1938-3207 .- 0002-9165. ; 97:6, s. 1395-1402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake. Design: We performed 2-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of macronutrient intake in populations of European descent. Macronutrients were assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires and analyzed as percentages of total energy consumption from total fat, protein, and carbohydrate. From the discovery GWA (n = 38,360), 35 independent loci associated with macronutrient intake at P < 5 x 10(-6) were identified and taken forward to replication in 3 additional cohorts (n = 33,533) from the DietGen Consortium. For one locus, fat mass obesity-associated protein (FTO), cohorts with Illumina MetaboChip genotype data (n 7724) provided additional replication data. Results: A variant in the chromosome 19 locus (rs838145) was associated with higher carbohydrate (beta +/- SE: 0.25 +/- 0.04%; P = 1.68 x 10(-8)) and lower fat (beta = SE: -0.21 +/- 0.04%; P = 1.57 x 10(-9)) consumption. A candidate gene in this region, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), encodes a fibroblast growth factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The variants in this locus were associated with circulating FGF21 protein concentrations (P < 0.05) but not mRNA concentrations in blood or brain. The body mass index (BMI) increasing allele of the FTO variant (rs1421085) was associated with higher protein intake (beta +/- SE: 0.10 +/- 0.02%; P = 9.96 x 10(-10)), independent of BMI (after adjustment for BMI, beta +/- SE: 0.08 +/- 0.02%; P = 3.15 x 10(-7)). Conclusion: Our results indicate that variants in genes involved in nutrient metabolism and obesity are associated with macronutrient consumption in humans. Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Triglycerides), NCT01331512 (InCHIANTI Study), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
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64.
  • Del Gobbo, Liana C., et al. (författare)
  • omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Coronary Heart Disease Pooling Project of 19 Cohort Studies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA Internal Medicine. - : American Medical Association. - 2168-6106 .- 2168-6114. ; 176:8, s. 1155-1166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. Most prior longitudinal studies evaluated self-reported consumption rather than biomarkers. OBJECTIVE To evaluate biomarkers of seafood-derived eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20: 5 omega-3), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22: 5 omega-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22: 6 omega-3) and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18: 3 omega-3) for incident CHD. DATA SOURCES A global consortium of 19 studies identified by November 2014. STUDY SELECTION Available prospective (cohort, nested case-control) or retrospective studies with circulating or tissue omega-3 biomarkers and ascertained CHD. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Each study conducted standardized, individual-level analysis using harmonized models, exposures, outcomes, and covariates. Findings were centrally pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was examined by age, sex, race, diabetes, statins, aspirin, omega-6 levels, and FADS desaturase genes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident total CHD, fatal CHD, and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS The 19 studies comprised 16 countries, 45 637 unique individuals, and 7973 total CHD, 2781 fatal CHD, and 7157 nonfatal MI events, with omega-3 measures in total plasma, phospholipids, cholesterol esters, and adipose tissue. Median age at baseline was 59 years (range, 18-97 years), and 28 660 (62.8%) were male. In continuous (per 1-SD increase) multivariable-adjusted analyses, the omega-3 biomarkers ALA, DPA, and DHA were associated with a lower risk of fatal CHD, with relative risks (RRs) of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.98) for ALA, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85-0.96) for DPA, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.96) for DHA. Although DPA was associated with a lower risk of total CHD (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99), ALA (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.95-1.05), EPA (RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87-1.02), and DHA (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00) were not. Significant associations with nonfatal MI were not evident. Associations appeared generally stronger in phospholipids and total plasma. Restricted cubic splines did not identify evidence of nonlinearity in dose responses. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE On the basis of available studies of free-living populations globally, biomarker concentrations of seafood and plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids are associated with a modestly lower incidence of fatal CHD.
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65.
  • Jensen, Richard A., et al. (författare)
  • HLA Genes, Islet Autoantibodies and Residual C-Peptide at the Clinical Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk of Retinopathy 15 Years Later
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 6:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/Hypothesis: HLA genes, islet autoantibodies and residual C-peptide were studied to determine the independent association of each exposure with diabetic retinopathy (DR), 15 years after the clinical onset of type 1 diabetes in 15-34 year old individuals. Methods: The cohort was identified in 1992 and 1993 by the Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS), which investigates incident cases of diabetes for patients between 15 and 34 years of age. Blood samples at diagnosis were analyzed to determine HLA genotype, islet autoantibodies and serum C-peptide. In 2009, fundus photographs were obtained from patient records. Study measures were supplemented with data from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry. Results: The prevalence of DR was 60.2% (148/246). Autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) at the onset of clinical diabetes increased the risk of DR 15 years later, relative risk 1.12 for each 100 WHO units/ml, [95% CI 1.02 to 1.23]. This equates to risk estimates of 1.27, [95% CI 1.04 to 1.62] and 1.43, [95% CI 1.06 to 1.94] for participants in the highest 25(th) (GADA. 233 WHO units/ml) and 5(th) percentile (GADA. 319 WHO units/ml) of GADA, respectively. These were adjusted for duration of diabetes, HbA(1c), treated hypertension, sex, age at diagnosis, HLA and C-peptide. Islet cell autoantibodies, insulinoma-antigen 2 autoantibodies, residual C-peptide and the type 1 diabetes associated haplotypes DQ2, DQ8 and DQ6 were not associated with DR. Conclusions: Increased levels of GADA at the onset of type 1 diabetes were associated with DR 15 years later. These results, if confirmed, could provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of the most common microvascular complication of diabetes and lead to better risk stratification for both patient screenings and DR treatment trials.
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66.
  • Marklund, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality : An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : American Heart Association. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 139:21, s. 2422-2436
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.Methods:We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available).Results:In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships.Conclusions:In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.
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67.
  • Murphy, Rachel A, et al. (författare)
  • Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and sleep : a pooled analysis of cohort studies On behalf of the Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium (FORCE).
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 115:3, s. 864-876
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have physiologic roles in sleep processes, but little is known regarding circulating n-3 and n-6 PUFA and sleep parameters.OBJECTIVES: To assess associations between biomarkers of n-3 and n-6 PUFA intake with self-reported sleep duration and difficulty falling sleeping in the Fatty Acids and Outcome Research Consortium.METHODS: Harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses were performed and pooled across 12 cohorts. Participants were between 35 to 96 years old and from 5 nations. Circulating measures included alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), EPA + DPA + DHA, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. Sleep duration (10 cohorts, N = 18,791) was categorized as short (≤6 hours), 7-8 hours (reference) or long (9 + hours). Difficulty falling sleeping (8 cohorts, N = 12,500) was categorized as yes or no. Associations between PUFAs, sleep duration, and difficulty falling sleeping were assessed by cross-sectional multinomial logistic regression using standardized protocols and covariates. Cohort-specific multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per quintile of PUFAs were pooled with inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis.RESULTS: In pooled analysis adjusted for sociodemographics and health status, participants with higher very long-chain n-3 PUFAs were less likely to have long sleep duration. Comparing top vs. bottom quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% confidence interval, CI) for long-sleep was 0.78 (0.65, 0.95) for DHA and for EPA + DPA + DHA, 0.76 (0.63, 0.93). Significant associations were not identified for ALA and n-6 PUFA with short sleep duration, or difficulty falling sleeping.CONCLUSIONS: Participants with higher levels of very long-chain n-3 PUFAs were less likely to have long sleep duration. While objective biomarkers reduce recall bias and misclassification, the cross-sectional design limits assessment of the temporal nature of this relationship. These novel findings across 12 cohorts highlight the need for experimental and biological assessments of very long-chain n-3 PUFAs and sleep duration.
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