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  • Hohnloser, Stefan H., et al. (författare)
  • Renal Function and Outcomes With Dabigatran Dual Antithrombotic Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation Patients After PCI
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JACC. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1936-8798 .- 1876-7605. ; 12:16, s. 1553-1561
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: The study sought to evaluate the effect of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy across categories of renal function in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran versus Triple Therapy with Warfarin in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial.BACKGROUND: The RE-DUAL PCI (NCT02164864) trial of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention reported that dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced the primary endpoint of major bleeding events (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (CRNMBE) compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events.METHODS: Risk of a first MBE or CRNMBE and the composite of death or thromboembolic event (DTE) or unplanned revascularization were evaluated in 2,725 patients according to baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) categories: 30 to <50, 50 to <80, and >= 80 ml/min.RESULTS: Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE across all categories of CrCl (p for interaction = 0.19). Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE regardless of the CrCl category (p for interaction = 0.31). Risk of DTE or unplanned revascularization was similar to warfarin triple therapy for dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy across all CrCl categories. Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy had similar risk for DTE or unplanned revascularization in patients with CrCl 30 to <80 ml/min and lower risk at CrCl >= 80 ml/min (p for interaction = 0.02).CONCLUSIONS: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy irrespective of renal function, with overall similar risks of thromboembolic events but lower risks with dabigatran 150 mg in patients with normal CrCl. 
  • Horowitz, John D., et al. (författare)
  • Asymmetric and Symmetric Dimethylarginine Predict Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation : An ARISTOTLE Substudy
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 72:7, s. 721-733
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND There is little mechanistic information on factors predisposing atrial fibrillation (AF) patients to thromboembolism or bleeding, but generation of nitric oxide (NO) might theoretically contribute to both. OBJECTIVES The authors tested the hypothesis that plasma levels of the methylated arginine derivatives asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA/SDMA), which inhibit NO generation, might be associated with outcomes in AF. METHODS Plasma samples were obtained from 5,004 patients with AF at randomization to warfarin or apixaban in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. ADMA and SDMA concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Relationships to clinical characteristics were evaluated by multivariable analyses. Associations with major outcomes, during a median of 1.9 years follow-up, were evaluated by adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS Both ADMA and SDMA plasma concentrations at study entry increased significantly with patients' age, female sex, renal impairment, permanent AF, or congestive heart failure. ADMA and SDMA increased (p < 0.001) with both increased CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores, but decreased in the presence of diabetes. On multivariable analysis adjusting for established risk factors and treatment, tertile groups of ADMA concentrations were significantly associated with stroke/systemic embolism (p = 0.034), and death (p < 0.0001), whereas tertile groups of SDMA were associated with major bleeding and death (p < 0.001 for both). Incorporating ADMA and SDMA into CHA2DS2-VASc or HAS-BLED predictive models improved C-indices for those outcomes. Neither ADMA nor SDMA predicted differential responses to warfarin or apixaban. CONCLUSIONS In anticoagulated patients with AF, elevated ADMA levels are weakly associated with thromboembolic events, elevated SDMA levels with bleeding events and both are strongly associated with increased mortality. These findings suggest that disturbances of NO function modulate both thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk in anticoagulated patients with AF. (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation [ARISTOTLE]; NCT00412984)
  • Huber, Kurt, et al. (författare)
  • Antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents in acute coronary syndromes : What is the current status and what does the future hold?
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 168:5, s. 611-621
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mortality and morbidity in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), caused principally by plaque erosion or rupture leading to thrombus formation and myocardial ischemia, have been reduced by a combination of antithrombotic agents (antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants) and early revascularization. Aspirin is the foundation antiplatelet agent. New P2Y(12) receptor inhibitors (prasugrel and ticagrelor) have clear benefits compared with clopidogrel for dual antiplatelet therapy, and cangrelor or vorapaxar, a thrombin receptor inhibitor, may be of value in specific settings. Anticoagulation uses 1 of 4 choices: bivalirudin, unfractionated heparin, enoxaparin, and fondaparinux. Moreover, some patients (such as those who have chronic atrial fibrillation) require triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, plus an anticoagulant, frequently a vitamin K antagonist. New oral anticoagulants have been shown to be at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists in atrial fibrillation and led to fewer bleeding complications. Finally, the combination of aspirin, clopidogrel, and low-dose rivaroxaban has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency (but not the Food and Drug Administration) for secondary prevention after ACS. Several strategies have been developed to balance the potential benefit of antithrombotic therapy against the risk of bleeding complications, for example, radial access in coronary angiography or restricted use of combination therapy, and others are under investigation, such as discontinuation of aspirin. This overview summarizes the current status of antithrombotic therapy in ACS and describes strategies currently explored to optimize its benefit/risk ratio.
  • Hylek, Elaine M., et al. (författare)
  • Major Bleeding in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Receiving Apixaban or Warfarin
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 63:20, s. 2141-2147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives This study sought to characterize major bleeding on the basis of the components of the major bleeding definition, to explore major bleeding by location, to define 30-day mortality after a major bleeding event, and to identify factors associated with major bleeding. Background Apixaban was shown to reduce the risk of major hemorrhage among patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Methods All patients who received at least 1 dose of a study drug were included. Major bleeding was defined according to the criteria of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Factors associated with major hemorrhage were identified using a multivariable Cox model. Results The on-treatment safety population included 18,140 patients. The rate of major hemorrhage among patients in the apixaban group was 2.13% per year compared with 3.09% per year in the warfarin group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60 to 0.80; p < 0.001). Compared with warfarin, major extracranial hemorrhage associated with apixaban led to reduced hospitalization, medical or surgical intervention, transfusion, or change in antithrombotic therapy. Major hemorrhage followed by mortality within 30 days occurred half as often in apixaban treated patients than in those receiving warfarin (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.74; p < 0.001). Older age, prior hemorrhage, prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, diabetes, lower creatinine clearance, decreased hematocrit, aspirin therapy, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independently associated with an increased risk. Conclusions Apixaban, compared with warfarin, was associated with fewer intracranial hemorrhages, less adverse consequences following extracranial hemorrhage, and a 50% reduction in fatal consequences at 30 days in cases of major hemorrhage. (c) 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation
  • James, Stefan, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of ticagrelor, the first reversible oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, with clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes : Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 157:4, s. 599-605
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy is essential treatment for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Current therapies, however, have important limitations affecting their clinical success. Ticagrelor, the first reversible oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, provides faster, greater, and more consistent adenosine diphosphate-receptor inhibition than clopidogrel. The phase III PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial is designed to test the hypothesis that ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel will result in a lower risk of recurrent thrombotic events in a broad patient population with ACS. METHODS: PLATO is an international, randomized, double-blind, event-driven trial involving >18,000 patients hospitalized for ST-elevation ACS with scheduled primary percutaneous coronary intervention or for non-ST-elevation ACS. After loading doses of ticagrelor 180 mg or clopidogrel 300 mg in a double-blind, double-dummy fashion (with provision for additional 300 mg clopidogrel at percutaneous coronary intervention), patients will receive ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 75 mg once daily for 6 to 12 months on top of acetylsalicylic acid. The primary efficacy end point is time to first occurrence of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. The primary safety variable is PLATO-defined major bleeding. An extensive substudy program will explore the pathophysiology of ACS, indicators of prognosis and response to treatment, mechanisms of effect and safety of the study medications, health economics, and quality of life. CONCLUSION: The PLATO study will provide a pivotal comparison of the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor with those of clopidogrel in ACS patients, together with extensive information on treatment outcomes in different subsets of ACS in a broad patient population.
  • Johansson, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomization study of NT-proBNP in patients with acute coronary syndrome
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 25:7, s. 1447-1456
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a strong predictor of mortality in coronary artery disease and is widely employed as a prognostic biomarker. However, a causal relationship between NT-proBNP and clinical endpoints has not been established. We have performed a genome-wide association and Mendelian randomization study of NT-proBNP. We used a discovery set of 3740 patients from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, which enrolled 18 624 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A further set of 5492 patients, from the same trial, was used for replication. Genetic variants at two novel loci (SLC39A8 and POC1B/GALNT4) were associated with NT-proBNP levels and replicated together with the previously known NPPB locus. The most significant SNP (rs198389, pooled P = 1.07 x 10(-15)) in NPPB interrupts an E-box consensus motif in the gene promoter. The association in SLC39A8 is driven by a deleterious variant (rs13107325, pooled P = 5.99 x 10(-10)), whereas the most significant SNP in POC1B/GALNT4 (rs11105306, pooled P = 1.02 x 10(-16)) is intronic. The SLC39A8 SNP was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular (CV) death (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.08-1.79, P = 0.0095), but the other loci were not associated with clinical endpoints. We have identified two novel loci to be associated with NT-proBNP in patients with ACS. Only the SLC39A8 variant, but not the NPPB variant, was associated with a clinical endpoint. Due to pleotropic effects of SLC39A8, these results do not suggest that NT-proBNP levels have a direct effect on mortality in ACS patients. PLATO Clinical Trial Registration: ; NCT00391872.
  • Johansson, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • NLRC4 Inflammasome Is an Important Regulator of Interleukin-18 Levels in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Genome-Wide Association Study in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes Trial (PLATO)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1942-325X .- 1942-3268. ; 8:3, s. 498-506
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Interleukin 18 (IL-18) promotes atherosclerotic plaque formation and is increased in patients with acute coronary syndromes. However the relative contribution of genetic variants to the IL-18 levels has not been fully determined. Methods and Results Baseline plasma IL-18 levels were measured in 16633 patients with acute coronary syndrome, of whom 9340 had genetic data that passed genotype quality control. A 2-stage genome-wide association study was performed, followed by combined analyses using >10 million genotyped or imputed genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at 3 loci (IL18, NLRC4, and MROH6) were identified (P<3.15x10(-8)) in the discovery cohort (n=3777) and replicated in the remaining patients (n=5563). In the pooled data (discovery+replication cohort), 7 independent associations, in 5 chromosomal regions, were associated with IL-18 levels (minimum P=6.99x10(-72)). Six single nucleotide polymorphisms are located in predicted promoter regions of which one disrupts a transcription factor binding site. One single nucleotide polymorphism in NLRC4 is a rare missense variant, predicted to be deleterious to the protein. Altogether, the identified genetic variants explained 8% of the total variation in IL-18 levels in the cohort. Conclusions Our results show that genetic variants play an important role in determining IL-18 levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome and we have identified genetic variants located in the IL-18 gene (IL18) or close to genes that are involved in procaspase-1 activation (NLRC4 and CARD16, CARD17, and CARD18). These associations also highlight the importance of the NLRC4 inflammasome for IL-18 production in acute coronary syndrome patients.
  • Jolly, Sanjit S., et al. (författare)
  • Procedural Volume and Outcomes With Radial or Femoral Access for Coronary Angiography and Intervention
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097. ; 63:10, s. 954-963
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The study sought to evaluate the relationship between procedural volume and outcomes with radial and femoral approach. Background RIVAL (RadIal Vs. femorAL) was a randomized trial of radial versus femoral access for coronary angiography/intervention (N = 7,021),which overall did not show a difference in primary outcome of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or non-coronary artery bypass graft major bleeding. Methods In pre-specified subgroup analyses, the hazard ratios for the primary outcome were compared among centers divided by tertiles and among individual operators. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the independent effect of center and operator volumes after adjusting for other variables. Results In high-volume radial centers, the primary outcome was reduced with radial versus femoral access (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28 to 0.87) but not in intermediate-(HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.72) or low-volume centers (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.52 to 1.31; interaction p 0.021). High-volume centers enrolled a higher proportion of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). After adjustment for STEMI, the benefit of radial access persisted at high-volume radial centers. There was no difference in the primary outcome between radial and femoral access by operator volume: high-volume operators (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.28), intermediate (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.27), and low (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.65; interaction p 0.536). However, in a multivariable model, overall center volume and radial center volume were independently associated with the primary outcome but not femoral center volume (overall percutaneous coronary intervention volume HR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96; radial volume HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.97; and femoral volume HR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.07; p 0.98). Conclusions Procedural volume and expertise are important, particularly for radial percutaneous coronary intervention. (A Trial of Trans-radial Versus Trans-femoral Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] Access Site Approach in Patients With Unstable Angina or Myocardial Infarction Managed With an Invasive Strategy [RIVAL]; NCT01014273) (C) 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation
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