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121.
  • Thomas, Mark R., et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic impact of baseline inflammatory markers in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with ticagrelor and clopidogrel.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2048-8726 .- 2048-8734. ; 10:2, s. 153-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in the pathophysiology of coronary artery disease. We aimed to determine whether baseline inflammatory markers were associated with clinical outcomes and the observed superiority of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO study.METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 16,400 patients within 24 hours of the onset of acute coronary syndrome, at the time of random assignment to ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO study and prior to invasive procedures. The differential white blood cell count and plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 were determined and their relationships with clinical outcomes were assessed according to quartiles and using continuous models. The substudy primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction.RESULTS: Compared to the lowest quartile, the risk of the primary endpoint was significantly elevated in patients in the highest quartile of white blood cell count (hazard ratio (HR) 1.30; P=0.01), neutrophil count (HR 1.33; P=0.007), monocyte count (HR 1.24; P=0.004), C-reactive protein (HR 1.93; P<0.001) and interleukin-6 (HR 2.29; P<0.001). This was predominantly driven by an association with cardiovascular death. Following adjustment for clinical characteristics, troponin, cystatin C and N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide, only white blood cell count and neutrophil count maintained a significant association with the primary endpoint. Ticagrelor had a consistent relative cardiovascular benefit compared to clopidogrel in each quartile of each of the inflammatory markers.CONCLUSIONS: Acute coronary syndrome patients with elevated levels of baseline inflammatory markers are at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, particularly cardiovascular death. The consistent cardiovascular benefit of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel tended to confer a greater absolute risk reduction in patients with the highest levels of inflammatory markers, as they were at highest risk.
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122.
  • Ueland, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Admission Levels of DKK1 (Dickkopf-1) Are Associated With Future Cardiovascular Death in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. - 1079-5642 .- 1524-4636. ; 39:2, s. 294-302
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective- The Wnt/wingless signaling antagonist DKK1 (dickkopf-1) regulates platelet-mediated inflammation and may contribute to plaque destabilization. We hypothesized that DKK1 would be associated with cardiovascular outcomes.Approach and Results- We determined DKK1 levels in serum samples obtained before randomization, at discharge, and 1 and 6 months in a subset of 5165 patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes; NCT00391872). The median (interquartile range) DKK1 concentrations were 0.61 (0.20-1.27) ng/mL at baseline and increased during follow-up. The hazard ratio (95% CIs) for the composite end point (cardiovascular death, nonprocedural spontaneous myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 1 year of follow-up, per 50% increase in baseline DKK1 concentration, was 1.06 (1.02-1.10), P=0.0011, and remained significant in fully adjusted analysis with 14 conventional clinical and demographic and 6 biochemical variables, including NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), hs-TnT (high-sensitivity troponin T), and GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor 15; 1.05 [1.00-1.09]; P=0.028). This association was mainly driven by the association with cardiovascular death, where a gradual increase in event rates was observed with increasing quartiles of DKK1 (2.7%, 3.0%, 4.3%, and 5.0%) and remained significant and unmodified in fully adjusted analysis (hazard ratio, 1.10 [1.04-1.17]; P=0.002). Change in DKK1 and levels at 1 month were unrelated to outcomes. A modifying effect of ticagrelor on DKK1 discharge levels was observed but not associated with prognosis.Conclusions- In patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with dual antiplatelet treatment, admission DKK1 levels were independently associated with a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke and with cardiovascular death alone.
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123.
  • Ueland, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • ALCAM predicts future cardiovascular death in acute coronary syndromes : Insights from the PLATO trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Atherosclerosis. - : Elsevier. - 0021-9150 .- 1879-1484. ; 293, s. 35-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) is upregulated during inflammation and involved in transmigration of leukocytes and T-cell activation. We hypothesized that ALCAM might be associated with recurrent events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).METHODS: ALCAM was measured in serum obtained on admission, at discharge, 1 month and 6 months in a subgroup of 5165 patients admitted with ACS and included in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial (NCT00391872). The association between ALCAM and the composite endpoint and its components, including cardiovascular (CV) death, non-procedural spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke during 1-year follow-up, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models with incremental addition of clinical risk factors and biomarkers (including high-sensitivity troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and growth differentiation factor-15).RESULTS: The median (Q1-Q3) concentration of ALCAM at admission was 97 (80-116) ng/mL. A 50% higher level of ALCAM on admission was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.16 (95% confidence interval [1.00-1.34] p = 0.043) for the composite endpoint in fully adjusted analysis, mainly driven by the association with CV death (HR 1.45 [1.16-1.82] p = 0.0012).CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ACS, admission level of ALCAM was independently associated with adverse outcome including CV death even after adjustment for established inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers.
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124.
  • Ueland, Thor, et al. (författare)
  • Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Major Bleeding But Not With Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : Insights From the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980. ; 7:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Elevated levels of osteoprotegerin, a secreted tumor necrosis factor-related molecule, might be associated with adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. We measured plasma osteoprotegerin concentrations on hospital admission, at discharge, and at 1 and 6months after discharge in a predefined subset (n=5135) of patients with acute coronary syndromes in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Methods and Results-The associations between osteoprotegerin and the composite end point of cardiovascular death, nonprocedural spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and non-coronary artery bypass grafting major bleeding during 1year of follow-up were assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. Event rates of the composite end point per increasing quartile groups at baseline were 5.2%, 7.5%, 9.2%, and 11.9%. A 50% increase in osteoprotegerin level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.42) for the composite end point but was not significant in adjusted analysis (ie, clinical characteristics and levels of C-reactive protein, troponin T, NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide], and growth differentiation factor-15). The corresponding rates of non-coronary artery bypass grafting major bleeding were 2.4%, 2.2%, 3.8%, and 7.2%, with an unadjusted HR of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.36-1.69), and a fully adjusted HR of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.09-1.46). The multivariable association between the osteoprotegerin concentrations and the primary end point after 1month resulted in an HR of 1.09 (95% CI, 0.89-1.33); for major bleeding after 1month, the HR was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.91-1.96). Conclusions-In patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with dual antiplatelet therapy, osteoprotegerin was an independent marker of major bleeding but not of ischemic cardiovascular events. Thus, high osteoprotegerin levels may be useful in increasing awareness of increased bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving antithrombotic therapy.
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125.
  • Valgimigli, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Antithrombotic treatment strategies in patients with established coronary atherosclerotic disease
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy. - : Oxford University Press. - 2055-6837 .- 2055-6845. ; 9:5, s. 462-496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple guidelines and consensus papers have addressed the role of antithrombotic strategies in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD). Since evidence and terminology continue to evolve, the authors undertook a consensus initiative to guide clinicians to select the optimal antithrombotic regimen for each patient. The aim of this document is to provide an update for clinicians on best antithrombotic strategies in patients with established CAD, classifying each treatment option in relation to the number of antithrombotic drugs irrespective of whether the traditional mechanism of action is expected to mainly inhibit platelets or coagulation cascade. With the aim to reach comprehensiveness of available evidence, we systematically reviewed and performed meta-analyses by means of both direct and indirect comparisons to inform the present consensus document.
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126.
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127.
  • Varenhorst, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of genetic variations on ticagrelor plasma levels and clinical outcomes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 36:29, s. 1901-1912
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Ticagrelor, a direct-acting P2Y(12)-receptor antagonist, is rapidly absorbed and partly metabolized to the major metabolite AR-C124910XX (ARC). To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor and clinical outcomes, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in patients treated with ticagrelor in the PLATO trial. Methods and results A two-stage design was used for the GWAS with discovery (discovery phase: n = 1812) and replication cohorts (replication phase: n = 1941). The steady-state area under the curve (AUCss) values, estimated by the population pharmacokinetic (PK) models, were log transformed and analysed on a genome-wide scale using linear regression. SNPs were analysed against clinical events using Cox-regression in 4990 patients. An SNP (rs113681054) in SLCO1B1 was associated with levels of ticagrelor (P = 1.1 x 10(-6)) and ARC (P = 4.6 x 10(-13)). This SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with a functional variant (rs4149056) that results in decreased OATP1B1 transporter activity. Ticagrelor levels were also associated with two independent SNPs (rs62471956, P = 7.7 x 10(-15) and rs56324128, P = 9.7 x 10(-12)) in the CYP3A4 region. Further, ARC levels were associated with rs61361928 (P = 3.0 x 10(-14)) in UGT2B7. At all loci, the effects were small. None of the identified SNPs that affected ticagrelor PK were associated with the primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death myocardial infarction, and stroke), non-CABG-related bleeds or investigator-reported dyspnoea. Conclusion In patients with ACS, ticagrelor pharmacokinetics is influenced by three genetic loci (SLCO1B1, UGT2B7, and CYP3A4). However, the modest genetic effects on ticagrelor plasma levels did not translate into any detectable effect on efficacy or safety during ticagrelor treatment.
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128.
  • Varenhorst, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Factors Contributing to the Lower Mortality With Ticagrelor Compared With Clopidogrel in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - : Elsevier BV. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 60:17, s. 1623-1630
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives This study investigated the differences in specific causes of post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) deaths in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Background In the PLATO trial, patients assigned to ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel and who underwent CABG had significantly lower total and cardiovascular mortality. Methods In the 1,261 patients with CABG performed within 7 days after stopping study drug, reviewers blinded to treatment assignment classified causes of death into subcategories of vascular and nonvascular, and specifically identified bleeding or infection events that either caused or subsequently contributed to death. Results Numerically more vascular deaths occurred in the clopidogrel versus the ticagrelor group related to myocardial infarction (14 vs. 10), heart failure (9 vs. 6), arrhythmia or sudden death (9 vs. 3), and bleeding, including hemorrhagic stroke (7 vs. 2). Clopidogrel was also associated with an excess of nonvascular deaths related to infection (8 vs. 2). Among factors directly causing or contributing to death, bleeding and infections were more common in the clopidogrel group compared with the ticagrelor group (infections: 16 vs. 6, p < 0.05, and bleeding: 27 vs. 9, p < 0.01, for clopidogrel and ticagrelor, respectively). Conclusions The mortality reduction with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel following CABG in the PLATO trial was associated with fewer deaths from cardiovascular, bleeding, and infection complications.
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129.
  • Velders, Matthijs A., et al. (författare)
  • Biomarkers for risk stratification of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention : Insights from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes trial
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Elsevier BV. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 169:6, s. 879-889.e7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The incremental prognostic value of admission measurements of biomarkers beyond clinical characteristics and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unclear. Methods Centrally analyzed plasma for biomarker measurements was available in 5,385 of the STEMI patients treated with PPCI in the PLATO trial. Extent of CAD was graded by operators in association with PPCI. We evaluated the prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) beyond clinical characteristics and extent of CAD using Cox proportional hazards analyses, C-index, and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Outcomes were cardiovascular death (CVD) and spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI). Results Angiographic data on extent of CAD improved the prediction of CVD compared to clinical risk factors alone, increasing the C-index from 0.760 to 0.778, total NRI of 0.31. Biomarker information provided additional prognostic value for CVD beyond clinical risk factors and extent of CAD, C-indices ranging from 0.792 to 0.795 for all biomarkers, but with a higher NRI for NT-proBNP. Extent of CAD and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T were not associated with spontaneous MI. The prediction of spontaneous MI beyond clinical characteristics and extent of CAD (C-index 0.647) was improved by both NT-proBNP (C-index 0.663, NRI 0.22) and GDF-15 (C-index 0.652, NRI 0.05). Conclusions Biomarker measurement on admission is feasible and provides incremental risk stratification in patients with STEMI treated with PPCI, with NT-proBNP and GDF-15 being most valuable due to the association with both CVD and spontaneous MI.
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130.
  • Wallentin, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on outcomes of treatment with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for acute coronary syndromes : a genetic substudy of the PLATO trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 376:9749, s. 1320-1328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background In the PLATO trial of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel for treatment of acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor reduced the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, but increased events of major bleeding related to non-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes are known to influence the effects of clopidogrel. In this substudy, we investigated the effects of these genotypes on outcomes between and within treatment groups. Methods DNA samples obtained from patients in the PLATO trial were genotyped for CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles (*2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *7, and *8), the CYP2C19 gain-of-function allele *17, and the ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphism 3435C -> T. For the CYP2C19 genotype, patients were stratified by the presence or absence of any loss-of-function allele, and for the ABCB1 genotype, patients were stratified by predicted gene expression (high, intermediate, or low). The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke after up to 12 months' treatment with ticagrelor or clopidogrel. Findings 10 285 patients provided samples for genetic analysis. The primary outcome occurred less often with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel, irrespective of CYP2C19 genotype: 8.6% versus 11.2% (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.99, p=0.0380) in patients with any loss-of-function allele; and 8.8% versus 10.0% (0.86, 0.74-1.01, p=0.0608) in those without any loss-of-function allele (interaction p=0.46). For the ABCB1 genotype, event rates for the primary outcome were also consistently lower in the ticagrelor than in the clopidogrel group for all genotype groups (interaction p=0.39; 8.8% vs 11.9%; 0.71, 0.55-0.92 for the high-expression genotype). In the clopidogrel group, the event rate at 30 days was higher in patients with than in those without any loss-of-function CYP2C19 alleles (5.7% vs 3.8%, p=0.028), leading to earlier separation of event rates between treatment groups in patients with loss-of-function alleles. Patients on clopidogrel who had any gain-of-function CYP2C19 allele had a higher frequency of major bleeding (11.9%) than did those without any gain-of-function or loss-of-function alleles (9.5%; p=0.022), but interaction between treatment and genotype groups was not significant for any type of major bleeding. Interpretation Ticagrelor is a more efficacious treatment for acute coronary syndromes than is dopidogrel, irrespective of CYP2C19 and ABCB1 polymorphisms. Use of ticagrelor instead of clopidogrel eliminates the need for presently recommended genetic testing before dual antiplatelet treatment.
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