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21.
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23.
  • James, Stefan K., et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes intended for non-invasive management : substudy from prospective randomised PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The BMJ. - : BMJ. - 1756-1833. ; 342, s. d3527-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes in patients in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial who at randomisation were planned for a non-invasive treatment strategy. Design Pre-specified analysis of pre-randomisation defined subgroup of prospective randomised clinical trial. Setting 862 centres in 43 countries. Participants 5216 (28%) of 18 624 patients admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome who were specified as planned for non-invasive management. Interventions Randomised treatment with ticagrelor (n=2601) versus clopidogrel (2615). Main outcome measurements Primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke; their individual components; and PLATO defined major bleeding during one year. Results 2183 (41.9%) patients had coronary angiography during their initial hospital admission, 1065 (20.4%) had percutaneous coronary intervention, and 208 (4.0%) had coronary artery bypass surgery. Cumulatively, 3143 (60.3%) patients had been managed non-invasively by the end of follow-up. The incidence of the primary end point was lower with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (12.0% (n=295) v 14.3% (346); hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.00; P=0.04). Overall mortality was also lower (6.1% (147) v 8.2% (195); 0.75, 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.01). The incidence of total major bleeding (11.9% (272) v 10.3% (238); 1.17, 0.98 to 1.39; P=0.08) and non-coronary artery bypass grafting related major bleeding (4.0% (90) v 3.1% (71); 1.30, 0.95 to 1.77; P=0.10) was numerically higher with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel. Conclusions In patients with acute coronary syndrome initially intended for non-invasive management, the benefits of ticagrelor over clopidogrel were consistent with those from the overall PLATO results, indicating the broad benefits of P2Y12 inhibition with ticagrelor regardless of intended management strategy.
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24.
  • James, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndromes in Relation to Renal Function Results From the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 122:11, s. 1056-1067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background-Reduced renal function is associated with a poorer prognosis and increased bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes and may therefore alter the risk-benefit ratio with antiplatelet therapies. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel reduced the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke at 12 months but with similar major bleeding rates. Methods and Results-Central laboratory serum creatinine levels were available in 15 202 (81.9%) acute coronary syndrome patients at baseline, and creatinine clearance, estimated by the Cockcroft Gault equation, was calculated. In patients with chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance <60 mL/min; n = 3237), ticagrelor versus clopidogrel significantly reduced the primary end point to 17.3% from 22.0% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.90) with an absolute risk reduction greater than that of patients with normal renal function (n = 11 965): 7.9% versus 8.9% (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.02). In patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor reduced total mortality (10.0% versus 14.0%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89). Major bleeding rates, fatal bleedings, and non-coronary bypass-related major bleedings were not significantly different between the 2 randomized groups (15.1% versus 14.3%; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.30; 0.34% versus 0.77%; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.54; and 8.5% versus 7.3%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.68). The interactions between creatinine clearance and randomized treatment on any of the outcome variables were nonsignificant. Conclusions-In acute coronary syndrome patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduces ischemic end points and mortality without a significant increase in major bleeding but with numerically more non-procedure-related bleeding.
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25.
  • Judge, Heather M, et al. (författare)
  • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P2Y12 receptor antagonists yield additive inhibition of platelet aggregation, granule secretion, soluble CD40L release and procoagulant responses.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Platelets. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0953-7104 .- 1369-1635. ; 16:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) antagonists, including abciximab and tirofiban, are administered concurrently with clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, and aspirin in some patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. We studied the effects of, and interactions between, abciximab, tirofiban, aspirin and the P2Y12 antagonist cangrelor on platelet aggregation, alpha and dense granule secretion and procoagulant responses in vitro. Blood was obtained from healthy volunteers. Platelet aggregation, dense granule secretion, alpha granule secretion (PAI-1 and soluble CD40 ligand levels) and procoagulant responses (annexin-V and microparticle formation) were assessed using collagen and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) as agonists. All the antagonists used singularly inhibited collagen-induced responses. Combinations of abciximab or tirofiban with aspirin and/or cangrelor gave additive inhibition with the greatest effect seen when abciximab or tirofiban was combined with both aspirin and cangrelor. Cangrelor inhibited TRAP-induced responses and, again, there was additive inhibition of these parameters when abciximab or tirofiban were combined with cangrelor. The GPIIb/IIIa receptor plays an important role in amplification of platelet activation such that there are important interactions between GPIIb/IIIa antagonists and inhibitors of both P2Y12 receptor activation and, to a lesser extent, thromboxane A2 generation. These interactions are likely to have important influences on the safety and efficacy of combination anti-platelet therapies.
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26.
  • Judge, Heather M, et al. (författare)
  • Relationship between degree of P2Y12 receptor blockade and inhibition of P2Y12-mediated platelet function.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Thrombosis and Haemostasis. - 0340-6245 .- 2567-689X. ; 103:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thienopyridine P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel and prasugrel prevent arterial thrombosis and are routinely used following percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the optimal level of P2Y12 blockade to effectively inhibit platelet function is unknown. These studies utilised the active metabolite of prasugrel (R-138727) to achieve a range of P2Y12 blockade in vitro and assessed several aspects of platelet function. Blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with R-138727 (0-10 microM). P2Y12 receptor number was assessed using a 33P-2MeSADP binding assay. Platelet aggregation (PA) was measured by optical aggregometry with ADP 2-20 microM. VASP phosphorylation, annexin V binding, microparticle formation and P-selectin expression were assessed by flow cytometry. Increasing numbers of unblocked receptors were required for a sustained aggregation response with decreasing concentrations of ADP. A P2Y12 receptor blockade of 60-80% resulted in strong inhibition of final PA response, P-selectin expression, microparticle formation and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). PA induced by ADP 2 microM and P-selectin expression were particularly sensitive to low levels of receptor blockade whereas the VASP phosphorylation assay was relatively insensitive, requiring 60% receptor blockade to achieve substantial inhibition. Different assays varied in their ability to discriminate particular ranges of P2Y12 blockade and 80% or greater P2Y12 receptor blockade is required for consistently strong inhibition of several aspects of platelet function. These data guide the interpretation of results from different assays used to monitor the effects of P2Y12 receptor antagonists.
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27.
  • Judge, Heather M, et al. (författare)
  • The active metabolite of prasugrel effectively blocks the platelet P2Y12 receptor and inhibits procoagulant and pro-inflammatory platelet responses.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Platelets. - : Informa UK Limited. - 0953-7104 .- 1369-1635. ; 19:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of these studies was to investigate the extent of platelet P2Y(12) receptor inhibition by the thienopyridine active metabolite of prasugrel, R-138727. Blood was taken from healthy volunteers and pre-incubated with R-138727 or cangrelor (AR-C66931MX). Platelet aggregation was assessed in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood (WB). Vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation, platelet procoagulant activity (annexin V binding and microparticle formation) and calcium mobilisation were measured by flow cytometry. Platelet-leukocyte co-aggregate formation and sCD40L release, both pro-inflammatory responses of platelets, were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. P2Y(12) receptor antagonism was determined using a radioligand binding assay ((33)P 2-MeSADP) in resting and stimulated platelets and the effects of clopidogrel administration were also assessed. R-138727 yielded concentration-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation, VASP phosphorylation inhibition, procoagulant activity and pro-inflammatory responses. In the presence of R-138727 or cangrelor there was increased calcium reuptake following agonist stimulation. R-138727 30 micromol/L and cangrelor 1 micromol/L completely inhibited (33)P 2-MeSADP binding, compared to partial inhibition following clopidogrel administration. Platelet activation and granule secretion did not expose an additional pool of P2Y(12) receptors. Prasugrel's active metabolite effectively blocks the P2Y(12) receptor with the highest concentrations tested yielding complete inhibition of P2Y(12)-mediated amplification of several important platelet responses.
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28.
  • Kessler, Thorsten, et al. (författare)
  • Association of the coronary artery disease risk gene GUCY1A3 with ischaemic events after coronary intervention
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Cardiovascular Research. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0008-6363 .- 1755-3245. ; 115:10, s. 1512-1518
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim A common genetic variant at the GUCY1A3 coronary artery disease locus has been shown to influence platelet aggregation. The risk of ischaemic events including stent thrombosis varies with the efficacy of aspirin to inhibit platelet reactivity. This study sought to investigate whether homozygous GUCY1A3 (rs7692387) risk allele carriers display higher on-aspirin platelet reactivity and risk of ischaemic events early after coronary intervention. Methods and results The association of GUCY1A3 genotype and on-aspirin platelet reactivity was analysed in the genetics substudy of the ISAR-ASPI registry (n = 1678) using impedance aggregometry. The clinical outcome cardiovascular death or stent thrombosis within 30 days after stenting was investigated in a meta-analysis of substudies of the ISAR-ASPI registry, the PLATO trial (n = 3236), and the Utrecht Coronary Biobank (n = 1003) comprising a total 5917 patients. Homozygous GUCY1A3 risk allele carriers (GG) displayed increased on-aspirin platelet reactivity compared with non-risk allele (AA/AG) carriers [150 (interquartile range 91-209) vs. 134 (85-194) AU.min, P < 0.01]. More homozygous risk allele carriers, compared with non-risk allele carriers, were assigned to the high-risk group for ischaemic events (>203AU.min; 29.5 vs. 24.2%, P = 0.02). Homozygous risk allele carriers were also at higher risk for cardiovascular death or stent thrombosis (hazard ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.08-2.68; P = 0.02). Bleeding risk was not altered. Conclusion We conclude that homozygous GUCY1A3 risk allele carriers are at increased risk of cardiovascular death or stent thrombosis within 30 days after coronary stenting, likely due to higher on-aspirin platelet reactivity. Whether GUCY1A3 genotype helps to tailor antiplatelet treatment remains to be investigated.
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29.
  • Kunadian, Vijay, et al. (författare)
  • Angiographic Outcomes in the PLATO Trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS. - : Elsevier BV. - 1936-8798. ; 6:7, s. 671-683
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) angiographic substudy sought to compare the efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel with respect to angiographic outcomes before and after PCI in the setting of acute coronary syndrome. Background Greater platelet inhibition has been associated with improved angiographic outcomes before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, it was hypothesized that treatment with ticagrelor, which achieves more rapid, higher, and more consistent platelet inhibition, would be associated with improved angiographic outcomes when compared with those of clopidogrel treatment. Methods The angiographic cohort consists of 2,616 patients drawn from the 18,624-patient PLATO trial. Clopidogrel naive or pre-treated patients were randomized to 180 mg of ticagrelor or 300 mg of clopidogrel (75 mg for clopidogrel pre-treated patients). PCI patients were administered, as per treatment group: 1) an additional 90 mg of ticagrelor if >24 h following the initial loading dose; or 2) an optional further 300 mg of clopidogrel or placebo (total 600 mg) prior to PCI. The substudy primary endpoint was the incidence of post-PCI TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) myocardial perfusion grade 3 (TMPG 3) among patients who received a study drug prior to PCI. Results In total, 21.3% of patients were pretreated with clopidogrel prior to randomization. There was a short time interval between randomization and PCI (median: 0.68 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.30 to 2.21] h) among all patients. Post-PCI TMPG 3 was similar between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups (47.1% vs. 46.9%; p = 0.96). Likewise, the following pre-PCI outcomes were similar in the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups, respectively: TMPG 3 (30.5% vs. 31.2%), TIMI flow grade 3 (37.1% vs. 39.3%), corrected TIMI frame count (median: 100 vs. 71 frames), TIMI thrombus grade 0 (24.1% vs. 27.6%), minimum lumen diameter (median: 0.3 [IQR: 0.0 to 0.6] vs. 0.3 [IQR: 0.0 to 0.6] mm) and percentage of diameter stenosis (median: 89 [IQR: 78 to 100] vs. 89 [IQR: 77 to 100]). Conclusions Neither coronary flow nor myocardial perfusion, evaluated on coronary angiograms performed before or following PCI procedures within a few hours after the start of oral antiplatelet treatment in the setting of acute coronary syndromes, demonstrated a difference with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872)
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