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  • Gaglia, Michael A., Jr., et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of Platelet Reactivity in Black Versus White Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes After Treatment With Ticagrelor
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Cardiology. - : EXCERPTA MEDICA INC-ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0002-9149 .- 1879-1913. ; 119:8, s. 1135-1140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ticagrelor, a potent platelet inhibitor, has primarily been studied in white patients. Platelet reactivity among black patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on ticagrelor, however, is unknown. Our objective was to compare platelet reactivity in black versus white patients with ACS treated with ticagrelor. We conducted a prospective, pharmacodynamic study of 29 black patients with ACS treated with ticagrelor. Platelet reactivity was assessed at 1, 4, and 8 hours after a loading dose of ticagrelor 180 mg and at 30 days on a maintenance dose of ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily. Assays included light transmission aggregometry, VerifyNow P2Y12, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein. We provided comparison with a historical white cohort. Platelet reactivity among blacks with ACS on ticagrelor was similar to that in whites, except that blacks had lower values at 4 hours, 8 hours, and on maintenance therapy for light transmission aggregometry with 20 mu mol/L adenosine diphosphate. Among blacks, high-on-treatment platelet reactivity for all 3 assays was uncommon at 1 hour and nonexistent at 4 hours, 8 hours, and while on maintenance therapy. Blacks preloaded with clopidogrel (n = 17) had significantly lower results of VerifyNow (64 +/- 65 vs 198 +/- 86, p<0.001) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (12.8 +/- 21.6 vs 58.9 +/- 19.9, p<0.001) at 1 hour compared with those with no clopidogrel prelOad. In conclusion, among patients with ACS receiving ticagrelor, levels of platelet reactivity in blacks are similar to that in whites. This suggests that the cardiovascular benefits of ticagrelor observed in the platelet inhibition and patient outcomes (PLATO) trial are likely to be observed in blacks and whites.
  • Giannitsis, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • Contra
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 42:31, s. 2979-2985
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Giannitsis, Evangelos, et al. (författare)
  • Outcomes after planned invasive or conservative treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome and a normal value of high sensitivity troponin at randomisation : A Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial biomarker substudy.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 2048-8734 .- 2048-8726. ; 6:6, s. 500-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: Current guidelines for patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) recommend early invasive treatment in intermediate-to-high risk patients based on medical history, electrocardiogram (ECG) and elevated troponin. Patients with normal levels of cardiac troponin measured with a high-sensitivity method (cTnT-hs) might not benefit from early invasive procedures.METHODS AND RESULTS: In this Prospective Randomized Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) blood-core substudy, 1232 patients presented with NSTE-ACS had a high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (cTnT-hs) level <99(th) percentile (<14 ng/l) at randomisation. The outcomes in relation to a planned invasive (n=473) vs planned conservative treatment (n=759), were evaluated by adjusted Cox proportional hazard analyses. In patients with a normal cTnT-hs at randomisation, regardless of randomised treatment, a planned invasive vs conservative treatment was associated with a 2.3-fold higher risk (7.3% vs 3.4%, p=0.0028) for cardiovascular (CV) death or myocardial infarction (MI), driven by higher rates of procedure-related MI (3.4% vs 0.1%), while there were no differences in rates of CV death (1.3% vs 1.3%, p=0.72) or spontaneous MI (3.0% vs 2.1%, p=0.28). There were significantly more major bleeds (hazard ratio (HR) 2.98, p<0.0001), mainly due to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)-related (HR 4.05, p<0.0001) and non-CABG procedural-related major bleeding events (HR 5.31, p=0.0175), however there were no differences in non-procedure-related major bleeding (1.5% vs 1.9%, p=0.45). Findings were consistent for patients with a normal cTnI-hs at randomisation.CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NSTE-ACS and normal cTnT-hs, a planned early invasive treatment strategy was associated with increased rates of procedure-related MI and bleeding but no differences in long-term spontaneous MI, non-procedure-related bleeding or mortality.
  • Gregersen, Ida, et al. (författare)
  • Legumain in Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : WILEY. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 9:17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The cysteine protease legumain is increased in patients with atherosclerosis, but its causal role in atherogenesis and cardiovascular disease is still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of legumain with clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS : Serum levels of legumain were analyzed in 4883 patients with acute coronary syndrome from a substudy of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. Levels were analyzed at admission and after 1 month follow-up. Associations between legumain and a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction or stroke, and its individual components were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. At baseline, a 50% increase in legumain level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.04-1.21),P=0.0018, for the primary composite end point, adjusted for randomized treatment. The association remained significant after adjustment for important clinical and demographic variables (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19;P=0.013) but not in the fully adjusted model. Legumain levels at 1 month were not associated with the composite end point but were negatively associated with stroke (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88;P=0.0069), including in the fully adjusted model (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88;P=0.0114). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline legumain was associated with the primary outcome in patients with acute coronary syndrome, but not in the fully adjusted model. The association between high levels of legumain at 1 month and decreased occurrence of stroke could be of interest from a mechanistic point of view, illustrating the potential dual role of legumain during atherogenesis and acute coronary syndrome. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00391872.
  • Hagström, Emil, et al. (författare)
  • Growth differentiation factor-15 level predicts major bleeding and cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes : results from the PLATO study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 37:16, s. 1325-1333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) predicts death and composite cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the independent associations between GDF-15 levels and major bleeding, the extent of coronary lesions and individual CV events in patients with ACS. Methods and results Growth differentiation factor-15 was analysed at baseline (n = 16 876) in patients with ACS randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO (PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes) trial. Growth differentiation factor-15 levels were related to extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and to all types of non-coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)-related major bleeding, spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death during 12-month follow-up. In Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for established risk factors for CV disease and prognostic biomarkers (N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and high-sensitive troponin T), 1 SD increase in ln GDF-15 was associated with increased risk of major bleeding with a hazard ratio (HR) 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51) and with a similar increase in risk across different bleeding locations. For the same increase in ln GDF-15, the HR for the composite of CV death, spontaneous MI, and stroke was 1.29 (1.21-1.37), CV death 1.41 (1.30-1.53), all-cause death 1.41 (1.31-1.53), spontaneous MI 1.15 (1.05-1.26), and stroke 1.19 (1.01-1.42). The C-statistic improved for the prediction of CV death and non-CABG-related major bleeding when adding GDF-15 to established risk factors. Conclusions In patients with ACS, higher levels of GDF-15 are associated with raised risks of all types of major non-CABG-related bleeding, spontaneous MI, and stroke as well as CV and total mortality and seem to improve risk stratification for CV-mortality and major bleeding beyond established risk factors.
  • Hijazi, Ziad, et al. (författare)
  • Apixaban or Vitamin K Antagonists and Aspirin or Placebo According to Kidney Function in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation After Acute Coronary Syndrome or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention : Insights From the AUGUSTUS Trial
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 143:12, s. 1215-1223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In the AUGUSTUS trial (An Open-Label, 2x2 Factorial, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Safety of Apixaban Versus Vitamin K Antagonist and Aspirin Versus Aspirin Placebo in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Acute Coronary Syndrome or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention), apixaban resulted in less bleeding and fewer hospitalizations than vitamin K antagonists, and aspirin caused more bleeding than placebo in patients with atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention treated with a P2Y(12) inhibitor. We evaluated the risk-benefit balance of antithrombotic therapy according to kidney function.Methods: In 4456 patients, the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) formula was used to calculate baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The effect of apixaban versus vitamin K antagonists and aspirin versus placebo was assessed across kidney function categories by using Cox models. The primary outcome was International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Secondary outcomes included death or hospitalization and ischemic events (death, stroke, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis [definite or probable], or urgent revascularization). Creatinine clearanceResults: Overall, 30%, 52%, and 19% had an eGFR of >80, >50 to 80, and 30 to 50 mL.min(-1).1.73 m(-2), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, a total of 543 primary outcomes of bleeding, 1125 death or hospitalizations, and 282 ischemic events occurred. Compared with vitamin K antagonists, patients assigned apixaban had lower rates for all 3 outcomes across most eGFR categories without significant interaction. The absolute risk reduction with apixaban was most pronounced in those with an eGFR of 30 to 50 mL.min(-1).1.73 m(-2) for bleeding events with rates of 13.1% versus 21.3% (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41-0.84). Patients assigned aspirin had a higher risk of bleeding in all eGFR categories with an even greater increase among those with eGFR >80 mL.min(-1).1.73 m(-2): 16.6% versus 5.6% (hazard ratio, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.19-4.74; P for interaction=0.007). The risk of death or hospitalization and ischemic events were comparable to aspirin and placebo across eGFR categories with hazard ratios ranging from 0.97 (95% CI, 0.76-1.23) to 1.28 (95% CI, 1.02-1.59) and from 0.75 (95% CI, 0.48-1.17) to 1.34 (95% CI, 0.81-2.22), respectively.Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of apixaban was consistent irrespective of kidney function, compared with warfarin, and in accordance with the overall trial results. The risk of bleeding with aspirin was consistently higher across all kidney function categories.
  • Hjort, Marcus, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Biomarker Concentrations and Their Temporal Changes in Patients With Myocardial Infarction and Nonobstructive Compared With Obstructive Coronary Arteries : Results From the PLATO Trial
  • 2023
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Heart Association. - : American heart association. - 2047-9980 .- 2047-9980. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The pathobiology of myocardial infarction (MI) with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is often uncertain. Investigating biomarker concentrations and their changes may offer novel pathophysiological insights.Methods and Results: In this post hoc study of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, concentrations of hs‐cTnT (high‐sensitivity cardiac troponin T), NT‐proBNP (N‐terminal pro‐B‐type natriuretic peptide), hs‐CRP (high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein), and GDF‐15 (growth differentiation factor 15) were measured in patients with MINOCA at baseline (n=554) and at 1‐month follow‐up (n=107). For comparisons, biomarkers were also measured in patients with MI with obstructive (stenosis ≥50%) coronary artery disease (baseline: n=11 106; follow‐up: n=2755]). Adjusted linear regression models were used to compare concentrations and their short‐ and long‐term changes. The adjusted geometric mean ratios (GMRs) in patients with MINOCA (median age, 61 years; 50.4% women) indicated lower hs‐cTnT (GMR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.68–0.88]) but higher hs‐CRP (GMR, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.08–1.37]) and GDF‐15 concentrations (GMR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02–1.11]) at baseline compared with patients with MI with obstructive coronary artery disease, whereas NT‐proBNP concentrations were similar. Temporal decreases in hs‐cTnT, NT‐proBNP, and hs‐CRP concentrations until 1‐month follow‐up were more pronounced in patients with MINOCA. At follow‐up, patients with MINOCA had lower concentrations of hs‐cTnT (GMR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.60–0.84]), NT‐proBNP (GMR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.36–0.56]), and hs‐CRP (GMR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.53–0.86]). One‐month GDF‐15 concentrations were similar between both groups with MI.Conclusions: Biomarker concentrations suggest greater initial inflammatory activity, similar degree of myocardial dysfunction, and less pronounced myocardial injury during the acute phase of MINOCA compared with MI with obstructive coronary artery disease but also faster myocardial recovery.CLINICAL TRAIL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.
  • Husted, Steen, et al. (författare)
  • The efficacy of ticagrelor is maintained in women with acute coronary syndromes participating in the prospective, randomized, PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : Oxford University Press (OUP). - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 35:23, s. 1541-1550
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between sex and clinical outcomes and treatment-related complications in patients with ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) randomized to treatment with ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Methods The associations between sex subgroup and the primary composite outcomes, secondary outcomes, and major bleeding endpoints as well as interaction of sex subgroup with treatment effects were analysed using Cox proportional-hazards models. Results Sex was not significantly associated with the probability of the primary composite endpoint [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.02 (0.91-1.16)], or other adverse cardiovascular endpoints. Ticagrelor was similarly more effective than clopidogrel in reducing rates of the primary endpoint in women 11.2 vs. 13.2% [adjusted HR: 0.88 (0.74-1.06)] and men 9.4 vs. 11.1% [adjusted HR: 0.86 (0.76-0.97)] (interaction P-value 0.78), all-cause death in women 5.8 vs. 6.8% [adjusted HR: 0.90 (0.69-1.16)] and men 4.0 vs. 5.7% [adjusted HR: 0.80 (0.67-0.96)] (interaction P-value 0.49), and definite stent thrombosis in women 1.2 vs. 1.4% [adjusted HR: 0.71 (0.36-1.38)] and men 1.4 vs. 2.1% [adjusted HR: 0.63 (0.45-0.89)] (interaction P-value 0.78). The treatments did not differ for PLATO-defined overall major bleeding complications in women [adjusted HR: 1.01 (0.83-1.23)] or men [adjusted HR: 1.10 (0.98-1.24)]. Sex had no significant association with these outcomes (interactions P = 0.43-0.88). Conclusion Female sex is not an independent risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes in moderate-to-high risk ACS patients. Ticagrelor has a similar efficacy and safety profile in men and women.
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