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Sökning: WFRF:(Sunyer Jordi)

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  • Föregående 1...2345[6]78Nästa
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51.
  • Mirabelli, Maria C, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational risk factors for asthma among nurses and related healthcare professionals in an international study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 64:7, s. 474-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The authors examined the relations between self-reported work tasks, use of cleaning products and latex glove use with new-onset asthma among nurses and other healthcare workers in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS II). Methods: In a random population sample of adults from 22 European sites, 332 participants reported working in nursing and other related healthcare jobs during the nine-year ECRHS II follow-up period and responded to a supplemental questionnaire about their principal work settings, occupational tasks, products used at work and respiratory symptoms. Poisson regression models with robust error variances were used to compare the risk of new-onset asthma among healthcare workers with each exposure to that of respondents who reported professional or administrative occupations during the entire follow-up period (n=2481). Results: Twenty (6%) healthcare workers and 131 (5%) members of the referent population reported new-onset asthma. Compared to the referent group, the authors observed increased risks among hospital technicians (RR 4.63; 95% Cl 1.87 to 11.5) and among those using ammonia and/or bleach at work (RR 2.16; 95% Cl 1.03 to 4.53). Conclusions: In the ECRHS II cohort, hospital technicians and other healthcare workers experience increased risks of new-onset current asthma, possibly due to specific products used at work.
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52.
  • Nawrot, Tim S, et al. (författare)
  • Oxidative properties of ambient PM2.5 and elemental composition : heterogeneous associations in 19 European cities
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment. - 1352-2310 .- 1873-2844. ; 43:30, s. 4595-4602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We assessed the extent to which constituents of PM2.5 (transition metals, sodium, chloride) contribute to the ability to generate hydroxyl radicals (OH) in vitro in PM2.5 sampled at 20 locations in 19 European centres participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. PM2.5 samples (n = 716) were collected on filters over one year and the oxidative activity of particle suspensions obtained from these filters was then assessed by measuring their ability to generate OH in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Associations between OH formation and the studied PM constituents were heterogeneous. The total explained variance ranged from 85% in Norwich to only 6% in Albacete. Among the 20 centres, 15 showed positive correlations between one or more of the measured transition metals (copper, iron, manganese, lead, vanadium and titanium) and OH formation. In 9 of 20 centres OH formation was negatively associated with chloride, and in 3 centres with sodium. Across 19 European cities, elements which explained the largest variations in OH formation were chloride, iron and sodium.
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53.
  • Neuman, Åsa, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Asthma in Preschool Children A Pooled Analysis of Eight Birth Cohorts
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. - 1073-449X .- 1535-4970. ; 186:10, s. 1037-1043
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Although epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to maternal smoking during fetal and early life increases the risk of childhood wheezing and asthma, previous studies were not able to differentiate the effects of prenatal from postnatal exposure. Objectives: To assess the effect of exposure to maternal smoking only during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma among preschool-age children. Methods: A pooled analysis was performed based on individual participant data from eight European birth cohorts. Cohort-specific effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, but not during the first year, on wheeze and asthma at 4 to 6 years of age were estimated using logistic regression and then combined using a random effects model. Adjustments were made for sex, parental education, parental asthma, birth weight, and siblings. Measurements and Main Results: Among the 21,600 children included in the analysis, 735 children (3.4%) were exposed to maternal smoking exclusively during pregnancy but not in the first year after birth. In the pooled analysis, maternal smoking only during pregnancy was associated with wheeze and asthma at 4 to 6 years of age, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.39 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.77) and 1.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.31), respectively. The likelihood to develop wheeze and asthma increased statistically significantly in a linear dose-dependent manner in relation to maternal daily cigarette consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions: Maternal smoking during pregnancy appears to increase the risk of wheeze and asthma among children who are not exposed to maternal smoking after birth.
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54.
  • Norbäck, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Lung function decline in relation to mould and dampness in the home : the longitudinal European Community Respiratory Health Survey ECRHS II
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Thorax. - 0040-6376 .- 1468-3296. ; 66:5, s. 396-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There are few longitudinal studies that have examined the association of lung function decline with indoor mould and dampness. Lung function decline in relation to dampness and mould in the home has studied in adults over a 9 year period. Methods Spirometry was performed twice in participants in the European Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II) who were initially examined aged 20-45 years, in 1990-1995 and 9 years later (n=6443). Information on their current home was collected twice by interview. Dampness (water damage or damp spots) and indoor mould, ever and in the last 12 months, were assessed. A dampness score and a mould score were calculated. In addition, 3118 homes at 22 centres were inspected directly at follow-up for the presence of dampness and mould. Results Dampness and mould were common. Overall, 50.1% reported any dampness and 41.3% any indoor mould in either ECRHS I or ECRHS II. Women with dampness at home had an additional decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of -2.25 ml/year (95% CI -4.25 to -0.25), with a significant trend in increased lung function decline in relation to the dampness score (p=0.03). The association in women was significant when excluding those with asthma at baseline. Observed damp spots in the bedroom was associated with a significant additional decline in FEV1 of -7.43 ml/year (95% CI -13.11 to 1.74) in women. Conclusion Dampness and indoor mould growth is common in dwellings, and the presence of damp is a risk factor for lung function decline, especially in women.
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55.
  • Norbäck, Dan, et al. (författare)
  • Mould and dampness in dwelling places, and onset of asthma : the population-based cohort ECRHS
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine. - 1351-0711 .- 1470-7926. ; 70:5, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives To study new onset of adult asthma in relation to dampness and moulds in dwelling places. Methods Totally, 7104 young adults from 13 countries who participated in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS I and II) who did not report respiratory symptoms or asthma at baseline were followed prospectively for 9 years. Asthma was assessed by questionnaire data on asthmatic symptoms and a positive metacholine challenge test at follow-up. Data on the current dwelling was collected at the beginning and at the end of the follow-up period by means of an interviewer-led questionnaire, and by inspection. Relative risks (RR) for new onset asthma were calculated with log-binomial models adjusted for age, sex, smoking and study centre. Results There was an excess of new asthma in subjects in homes with reports on water damage (RR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.94) and indoor moulds (RR=1.30; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.68) at baseline. A dose-response effect was observed. The effect was stronger in those with multisensitisation and in those sensitised to moulds. Observed damp spots were related to new asthma (RR=1.49; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.22). The population-attributable risk was 3-10% for reported, and 3-14% for observed dampness/moulds. Conclusions Dampness and mould are common in dwellings, and contribute to asthma incidence in adults.
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56.
  • Pedersen, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Birth Weight, Head Circumference, and Prenatal Exposure to Acrylamide from Maternal Diet : The European Prospective Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 120:12, s. 1739-1745
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a common dietary exposure that crosses the human placenta. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen, and developmental toxicity has been observed in rodents. OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between prenatal exposure to acrylamide and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother child study. METHODS: Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide were measured in cord blood (reflecting cumulated exposure in the last months of pregnancy) from 1,101 singleton pregnant women recruited in Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain during 2006-2010. Maternal diet was estimated through food-frequency questionnaires. RESULTS: Both acrylamide and glycidamide Hb adducts were associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth weight and head circumference. The estimated difference in birth weight for infants in the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide Hb adduct levels after adjusting for gestational age and country was -132 g (95% CI: -207, -56); the corresponding difference for head circumference was -0.33 cm (95% CI: -0.61, -0.06). Findings were similar in infants of nonsmokers, were consistent across countries, and remained after adjustment for Factors associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal consumption of foods rich in acrylamide, such as fried potatoes, was associated with cord blood acrylamide adduct levels and with reduced birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary exposure to acrylamide was associated with reduced birth weight and head circumference. Consumption of specific foods during pregnancy was associated with higher acrylamide exposure in utero. IF confirmed, these findings suggest that dietary intake of acrylamide should be reduced among pregnant women.
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57.
  • Pedersen, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 121:10, s. 1200-1206
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Tobacco-smoke, airborne, and dietary exposures to polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been associated with reduced prenatal growth. Evidence from -biomarker-based studies of low-exposed populations is limited. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood reflect the prenatal effective dose to several genotoxic agents including PAHs. Objectives: We estimated the association between bulky DNA adduct levels and birth weight in a multicenter study and examined modification of this association by maternal intake of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy. Methods: Pregnant women from Denmark, England, Greece, Norway, and Spain were recruited in 2006-2010. Adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique in white blood cells from 229 mothers and 612 newborns. Maternal diet was examined through questionnaires. Results: Adduct levels in maternal and cord blood samples were similar and positively correlated (median, 12.1 vs. 11.4 adducts in 108 nucleotides; Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.66, p < 0.001). Cord blood adduct levels were negatively associated with birth weight, with an estimated difference in mean birth weight of -129 g (95% CI: -233, -25 g) for infants in the highest versus lowest tertile of adducts. The negative association with birth weight was limited to births in Norway, Denmark, and England, the countries with the lowest adduct levels, and was more pronounced in births to mothers with low intake of fruits and vegetables (-248 g; 95% CI: -405, -92 g) compared with those with high intake (-58 g; 95% CI: -206, 90 g). Conclusions: Maternal exposure to genotoxic agents that induce the formation of bulky DNA adducts may affect intrauterine growth. Maternal fruit and vegetable consumption may be protective.
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58.
  • Real, Francisco Gómez, et al. (författare)
  • Lung function, respiratory symptoms, and the menopausal transition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825. ; 121:1, s. 72-80.e3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: There is limited information on potential changes in respiratory health when women enter the menopausal transition. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether the menopausal transition is related to lung function and asthma and whether body mass index (BMI) modifies associations. METHODS: Four thousand two hundred fifty-nine women from 21 centers (ECRHS II, 2002) responded to a questionnaire concerning women's health. Women aged 45 to 56 years not using exogenous sex hormones (n = 1274) were included in the present analysis. Lung function measurements (n = 1120) and serum markers of hormonal status (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and estradiol; n = 710) were available. Logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, years of education, smoking status, center, and height. RESULTS: Women not menstruating for the last 6 months (n = 432, 34%) had significantly lower FEV(1) values (-120 mL [95% CI, -177 to -63]), lower forced vital capacity values (-115 mL [95% CI, -181 to -50]), and more respiratory symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 1.82 [95% CI, 1.27-2.61]) than those menstruating regularly. Results were similar when restricting analyses to those who never smoked. Associations were significantly stronger in women with BMIs of less than 23 kg/m(2) (respiratory symptoms: OR, 4.07 [95% CI, 1.88-8.80]; FEV(1) adjusted difference: -166 [95% CI, -263 to -70]) than in women with BMIs of 23 to 28 kg/m(2) (respiratory symptoms: OR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.61-1.97], P(interaction): .04; FEV(1) adjusted difference, -54 [95% CI, -151 to 43], P(interaction) = .06). CONCLUSIONS: Menopause is associated with lower lung function and more respiratory symptoms, especially among lean women.
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59.
  • Real, Francisco Gomez, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal age at delivery, lung function and asthma in offspring : a population-based survey
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 51:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is limited information about potential impact of maternal age on the respiratory health of offspring. We investigated the association of maternal age at delivery with adult offspring's lung function, respiratory symptoms and asthma, and potential differences according to offspring sex. 10 692 adults from 13 countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) II responded to standardised interviews and provided lung function measurements and serum for IgE measurements at age 25-55 years. In logistic and linear multilevel mixed models we adjusted for participants' characteristics (age, education, centre, number of older siblings) and maternal characteristics (smoking in pregnancy, education) while investigating for differential effects by sex. Maternal age was validated in a subsample using data from the Norwegian birth registry. Increasing maternal age was associated with increasing forced expiratory volume in 1 s (2.33 mL per year, 95% CI 0.34-4.32 mL per year), more consistent in females (p(trend) 0.025) than in males (ptrend 0.14). Asthma (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.92) and respiratory symptoms (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.92) decreased with increasing maternal age (per 5 years) in females, but not in males (p(interaction) 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). The results were consistent across centres and not explained by confounding factors. Maternal ageing was related to higher adult lung function and less asthma/symptoms in females. Biological characteristics in offspring related to maternal ageing are plausible and need further investigation.
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60.
  • Schikowski, Tamara, et al. (författare)
  • Association of ambient air pollution with the prevalence and incidence of COPD
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal. - : European Respiratory Society. - 0903-1936 .- 1399-3003. ; 44:3, s. 614-626
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain.The aim was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to air pollution on COPD in four cohorts using the standardised ESCAPE exposure estimates. Annual average particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic exposure were assigned to home addresses using land-use regression models. COPD was defined by NHANES reference equation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal) and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criterion (FEV1/FVC <0.70) and categorised by severity in non-asthmatics.We included 6550 subjects with assigned NOx and 3692 with PM measures. COPD was not associated with NO2 or PM10 in any individual cohort. In meta-analyses only NO2, NOx, PM10 and the traffic indicators were positively, although not significantly, associated with COPD. The only statistically significant associations were seen in females (COPD prevalence using GOLD: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23; and incidence: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.68).None of the principal results were statistically significant, the weak positive associations of exposure with COPD and the significant subgroup findings need to be evaluated in further well standardised cohorts followed up for longer time, and with time-matched exposure assignments.
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