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Sökning: WFRF:(Tamura Motohide)

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  • Föregående 1[2]3456Nästa
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11.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Solar abundance ratios of the iron-peak elements in the Perseus cluster
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 551:7681, s. 478-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The metal abundance of the hot plasma that permeates galaxy clusters represents the accumulation of heavy elements produced by billions of supernovae(1). Therefore, X-ray spectroscopy of the intracluster medium provides an opportunity to investigate the nature of supernova explosions integrated over cosmic time. In particular, the abundance of the iron-peak elements (chromium, manganese, iron and nickel) is key to understanding how the progenitors of typical type Ia supernovae evolve and explode(2-6). Recent X-ray studies of the intracluster medium found that the abundance ratios of these elements differ substantially from those seen in the Sun(7-11), suggesting differences between the nature of type Ia supernovae in the clusters and in the Milky Way. However, because the K-shell transition lines of chromium and manganese are weak and those of iron and nickel are very close in photon energy, highresolution spectroscopy is required for an accurate determination of the abundances of these elements. Here we report observations of the Perseus cluster, with statistically significant detections of the resonance emission from chromium, manganese and nickel. Our measurements, combined with the latest atomic models, reveal that these elements have near-solar abundance ratios with respect to iron, in contrast to previous claims. Comparison between our results and modern nucleosynthesis calculations(12-14) disfavours the hypothesis that type Ia supernova progenitors are exclusively white dwarfs with masses well below the Chandrasekhar limit (about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun). The observed abundance pattern of the iron-peak elements can be explained by taking into account a combination of near-and sub-Chandrasekhar-mass type Ia supernova systems, adding to the mounting evidence that both progenitor types make a substantial contribution to cosmic chemical enrichment(5,15,16).
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12.
  • Aharonian, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature structure in the Perseus cluster core observed with Hitomi
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. - 0004-6264 .- 2053-051X. ; 70:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The present paper explains the temperature structure of X-ray emitting plasma in the core of the Perseus cluster based on 1.8-20.0 keV data obtained with the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) on board the Hitomi Observatory. A series of four observations was carried out, with a total effective exposure time of 338 ks that covered a central region of similar to 7' in diameter. SXS was operated with an energy resolution of similar to 5 eV (full width at half maximum) at 5.9 keV. Not only fine structures of K-shell lines in He-like ions, but also transitions from higher principal quantum numbers were clearly resolved from Si through Fe. That enabled us to perform temperature diagnostics using the line ratios of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, and to provide the first direct measurement of the excitation temperature and ionization temperature in the Perseus cluster. The observed spectrum is roughly reproduced by a single-temperature thermal plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium, but detailed line-ratio diagnostics reveal slight deviations from this approximation. In particular, the data exhibit an apparent trend of increasing ionization temperature with the atomic mass, as well as small differences between the ionization and excitation temperatures for Fe, the only element for which both temperatures could be measured. The best-fit two-temperature models suggest a combination of 3 and 5 keV gas, which is consistent with the idea that the observed small deviations from a single-temperature approximation are due to the effects of projecting the known radial temperature gradient in the cluster core along the line of sight. A comparison with the Chandra/ACIS and the XMM-Newton/RGS results, on the other hand, suggests that additional lower-temperature components are present in the intracluster medium (ICM), but not detectable with Hitomi/SXS giving its 1.8-20 keV energy band.
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13.
  • Akiyama, Eiji, et al. (författare)
  • SPIRAL STRUCTURE AND DIFFERENTIAL DUST SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN THE LkH alpha 330 DISK
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 152:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dust trapping accelerates the coagulation of dust particles, and, thus, it represents an initial step toward the formation of planetesimals. We report H-band (1.6 mu m) linear polarimetric observations and 0.87 mm interferometric continuum observations toward a transitional disk around LkH alpha 330. As a. result, a pair of spiral arms were detected in the H-band emission, and an asymmetric (potentially arm-like) structure was detected in the 0.87 mm continuum emission. We discuss the origin of the spiral arm and the asymmetric structure. and suggest that a massive unseen planet is the most plausible explanation. The possibility of dust trapping and grain growth causing the asymmetric structure was also investigated through the opacity index (beta) by plotting the observed spectral energy distribution slope between 0.87 mm from our Submillimeter Array observation and 1.3 mm from literature. The results imply that grains are indistinguishable from interstellar medium-like dust in the east side (beta = 2.0 +/- 0.5) but are much smaller in the west side beta = 0.7(-0.4)(+0.5), indicating differential dust size distribution between the two sides of the disk. Combining the results of near-infrared and submillimeter observations, we conjecture that the spiral arms exist at the upper surface and an asymmetric structure resides in the disk interior. Future observations at centimeter wavelengths and differential polarization imaging in other bands (Y-K) with extreme AO imagers are required to understand how large dust grains form and to further explore the dust distribution in the disk.
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14.
  • Arzoumanian, Doris, et al. (författare)
  • Dust polarized emission observations of NGC 6334: BISTRO reveals the details of the complex but organized magnetic field structure of the high-mass star-forming hub-filament network
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 647
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context. Molecular filaments and hubs have received special attention recently thanks to new studies showing their key role in star formation. While the (column) density and velocity structures of both filaments and hubs have been carefully studied, their magnetic field (B-field) properties have yet to be characterized. Consequently, the role of B-fields in the formation and evolution of hub-filament systems is not well constrained. Aims. We aim to understand the role of the B-field and its interplay with turbulence and gravity in the dynamical evolution of the NGC 6334 filament network that harbours cluster-forming hubs and high-mass star formation. Methods. We present new observations of the dust polarized emission at 850 μm toward the 2 pc × 10 pc map of NGC 6334 at a spatial resolution of 0.09 pc obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) as part of the B-field In STar-forming Region Observations (BISTRO) survey. We study the distribution and dispersion of the polarized intensity (PI), the polarization fraction (PF), and the plane-of-The-sky B-field angle (χB_POS) toward the whole region, along the 10 pc-long ridge and along the sub-filaments connected to the ridge and the hubs. We derived the power spectra of the intensity and χBPOS along the ridge crest and compared them with the results obtained from simulated filaments. Results. The observations span 3 orders of magnitude in Stokes I and PI and 2 orders of magnitude in PF (from 0.2 to 20%). A large scatter in PI and PF is observed for a given value of I. Our analyses show a complex B-field structure when observed over the whole region ( 10 pc); however, at smaller scales (1 pc), χBPOS varies coherently along the crests of the filament network. The observed power spectrum of χBPOS can be well represented with a power law function with a slope of-1.33 ± 0.23, which is 20% shallower than that of I. We find that this result is compatible with the properties of simulated filaments and may indicate the physical processes at play in the formation and evolution of star-forming filaments. Along the sub-filaments, χBPOS rotates frombeing mostly perpendicular or randomly oriented with respect to the crests to mostly parallel as the sub-filaments merge with the ridge and hubs. This variation of the B-field structure along the sub-filaments may be tracing local velocity flows of infalling matter in the ridge and hubs. Our analysis also suggests a variation in the energy balance along the crests of these sub-filaments, from magnetically critical or supercritical at their far ends to magnetically subcritical near the ridge and hubs. We also detect an increase in PF toward the high-column density (NH2 â 1023 cm-2) star cluster-forming hubs. These latter large PF values may be explained by the increase in grain alignment efficiency due to stellar radiation from the newborn stars, combined with an ordered B-field structure. Conclusions. These observational results reveal for the first time the characteristics of the small-scale (down to 0.1 pc) B-field structure of a 10 pc-long hub-filament system. Our analyses show variations in the polarization properties along the sub-filaments that may be tracing the evolution of their physical properties during their interaction with the ridge and hubs. We also detect an impact of feedback from young high-mass stars on the local B-field structure and the polarization properties, which could put constraints on possible models for dust grain alignment and provide important hints as to the interplay between the star formation activity and interstellar B-fields.
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15.
  • Asensio-Torres, Ruben, et al. (författare)
  • Isochronal age-mass discrepancy of young stars : SCExAO/CHARIS integral field spectroscopy of the HIP 79124 triple system
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 622
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present SCExAO/CHARIS 1.1--2.4 micron integral field direct spectroscopy of the young HIP 79124 triple system. HIP 79124 is a member of the Scorpius-Centaurus association, consisting of an A0V primary with two low-mass companions at a projected separation of <1 arcsecond. Thanks to the high quality wavefront corrections provided by SCExAO, both companions are decisively detected without the employment of any PSF-subtraction algorithm to eliminate quasi-static noise. The spectrum of the outer C object is very well matched by Upper Scorpius M4 pm 0.5 standard spectra, with a Teff = 2945 pm 100 and a mass of 350 MJup. HIP 79124 B is detected at a separation of only 180 mas in a highly-correlated noise regime, and it falls in the spectral range M6 pm 0.5 with Teff = 2840 pm 190 and 100 MJup. Previous studies of stellar populations in Sco-Cen have highlighted a discrepancy in isochronal ages between the lower-mass and higher-mass populations. This could be explained either by an age spread in the region, or by conventional isochronal models failing to reproduce the evolution of low-mass stars. The HIP 79124 system should be coeval, and therefore it provides an ideal laboratory to test these scenarios. We place the three components in a color-magnitude diagram and find that the models predict a younger age for the two low-mass companions (3 Myr) than for the primary star (6 Myr). These results imply that the omission of magnetic effects in conventional isochronal models inhibit them from reproducing early low-mass stellar evolution, which is further supported by the fact that new models that include such effects provide more consistent ages in the HIP 79124 system.
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16.
  • Barragán, O., et al. (författare)
  • Radial velocity confirmation of K2-100b: A young, highly irradiated, and low-density transiting hot Neptune
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 490:1, s. 698-708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present a detailed analysis of HARPS-N radial velocity observations of K2-100, a young and active star in the Praesepe cluster, which hosts a transiting planet with a period of 1.7 d. We model the activity-induced radial velocity variations of the host star with a multidimensional Gaussian Process framework and detect a planetary signal of 10.6 ± 3.0 m s−1, which matches the transit ephemeris, and translates to a planet mass of 21.8 ± 6.2 M. We perform a suite of validation tests to confirm that our detected signal is genuine. This is the first mass measurement for a transiting planet in a young open cluster. The relatively low density of the planet, 2.04+−006661 g cm−3, implies that K2-100b retains a significant volatile envelope. We estimate that the planet is losing its atmosphere at a rate of 1011–1012 g s−1 due to the high level of radiation it receives from its host star.
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17.
  • Chilcote, Jeffrey, et al. (författare)
  • SCExAO/CHARIS Direct Imaging of A Low-mass Companion At A Saturn-like Separation from an Accelerating Young A7 Star
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 162:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the SCExAO direct imaging discovery and characterization of a low-mass companion to the nearby young A7IV star, HD 91312. SCExAO/CHARIS JHK (1.1–2.4 μm) spectra and SCExAO/HiCIAO H-band imaging identify the companion over a two year baseline in a highly inclined orbit with a maximum projected separation of 8 au. The companion, HD 91312 B, induces an 8.8σ astrometric acceleration on the star as seen with the Gaia & Hipparcos satellites and a long-term radial-velocity trend as previously identified by Borgniet et al. HD 91312 B's spectrum is consistent with that of an early-to-mid M dwarf. Hipparcos and Gaia absolute astrometry, radial-velocity data, and SCExAO/CHARIS astrometry constrain its dynamical mass to be 0.337-0.044+0.042 M⊙, consistent with - but far more precise than - masses derived from spectroscopy, and favors a nearly edge-on orbit with a semimajor axis of ∼9.7 au. This work is an example of precisely characterizing properties of low-mass companions at solar system-like scales from a combination of direct imaging, astrometry, and radial-velocity methods.
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18.
  • Currie, Thayne, et al. (författare)
  • No Clear, Direct Evidence for Multiple Protoplanets Orbiting LkCa 15 : LkCa 15 bcd are Likely Inner Disk Signals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 877:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two studies utilizing sparse aperture-masking (SAM) interferometry and H-alpha differential imaging have reported multiple Jovian companions around the young solar-mass star, LkCa 15 (LkCa 15 bcd): the first claimed direct detection of infant, newly formed planets (protoplanets). We present new near-infrared direct imaging/spectroscopy from the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system coupled with Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) integral field spectrograph and multi-epoch thermal infrared imaging from Keck/NIRC2 of LkCa 15 at high Strehl ratios. These data provide the first direct imaging look at the same wavelengths and in the same locations where previous studies identified the LkCa 15 protoplanets, and thus offer the first decisive test of their existence. The data do not reveal these planets. Instead, we resolve extended emission tracing a dust disk with a brightness and location comparable to that claimed for LkCa 15 bcd. Forward-models attributing this signal to orbiting planets are inconsistent with the combined SCExAO/CHARIS and Keck/NIRC2 data. An inner disk provides a more compelling explanation for the SAM detections and perhaps also the claimed H-alpha detection of LkCa 15 b. We conclude that there is currently no clear, direct evidence for multiple protoplanets orbiting LkCa 15, although the system likely contains at least one unseen Jovian companion. To identify Jovian companions around LkCa 15 from future observations, the inner disk should be detected and its effect modeled, removed, and shown to be distinguishable from planets. Protoplanet candidates identified from similar systems should likewise be clearly distinguished from disk emission through modeling.
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19.
  • Currie, Thayne, et al. (författare)
  • RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED ?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 796:2, s. L30-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the first independent, second epoch (re-) detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover HD 100546 b with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to approximate to 12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0 ''.3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of approximate to 15 M-J. However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M-J). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90 degrees. away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to approximate to 0 ''.45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.
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20.
  • Currie, Thayne, et al. (författare)
  • SCExAO/CHARIS Direct Imaging Discovery of a 20 au Separation, Low-mass Ratio Brown Dwarf Companion to an Accelerating Sun-like Star
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 904:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the direct imaging discovery of a substellar companion to the nearby Sun-like star, HD 33632 Aa, at a projected separation of similar to 20 au, obtained with SCExAO/CHARIS integral field spectroscopy complemented by Keck/NIRC2 thermal infrared imaging. The companion, HD 33632 Ab, induces a 10.5 sigma astrometric acceleration on the star as detected with the Gaia and Hipparcos satellites. SCExAO/CHARIS JHK (1.1-2.4 mu m) spectra and Keck/NIRC2 L-p (3.78 mu m) photometry are best matched by a field L/T transition object: an older, higher-gravity, and less dusty counterpart to HR 8799 cde. Combining our astrometry with Gaia/Hipparcos data and archival Lick Observatory radial velocities, we measure a dynamical mass of 46.4 8 M-J and an eccentricity of e < 0.46 at 95% confidence. HD 33632 Ab's mass and mass ratio (4.0% 0.7%) are comparable to the low-mass brown dwarf GJ 758 B and intermediate between the more massive brown dwarf HD 19467 B and the (near-)planet-mass companions to HR 2562 and GJ 504. Using Gaia to select for direct imaging observations with the newest extreme adaptive optics systems can reveal substellar or even planet-mass companions on solar system-like scales at an increased frequency compared to blind surveys.
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  • Resultat 11-20 av 53
  • Föregående 1[2]3456Nästa

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