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Sökning: WFRF:(Tham E)

  • Resultat 101-109 av 109
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  • Wang, Mingyi, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid growth of new atmospheric particles by nitric acid and ammonia condensation
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 581:7807, s. 184-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper New-particle formation is a major contributor to urban smog(1,2), but how it occurs in cities is often puzzling(3). If the growth rates of urban particles are similar to those found in cleaner environments (1-10 nanometres per hour), then existing understanding suggests that new urban particles should be rapidly scavenged by the high concentration of pre-existing particles. Here we show, through experiments performed under atmospheric conditions in the CLOUD chamber at CERN, that below about +5 degrees Celsius, nitric acid and ammonia vapours can condense onto freshly nucleated particles as small as a few nanometres in diameter. Moreover, when it is cold enough (below -15 degrees Celsius), nitric acid and ammonia can nucleate directly through an acid-base stabilization mechanism to form ammonium nitrate particles. Given that these vapours are often one thousand times more abundant than sulfuric acid, the resulting particle growth rates can be extremely high, reaching well above 100 nanometres per hour. However, these high growth rates require the gas-particle ammonium nitrate system to be out of equilibrium in order to sustain gas-phase supersaturations. In view of the strong temperature dependence that we measure for the gas-phase supersaturations, we expect such transient conditions to occur in inhomogeneous urban settings, especially in wintertime, driven by vertical mixing and by strong local sources such as traffic. Even though rapid growth from nitric acid and ammonia condensation may last for only a few minutes, it is nonetheless fast enough to shepherd freshly nucleated particles through the smallest size range where they are most vulnerable to scavenging loss, thus greatly increasing their survival probability. We also expect nitric acid and ammonia nucleation and rapid growth to be important in the relatively clean and cold upper free troposphere, where ammonia can be convected from the continental boundary layer and nitric acid is abundant from electrical storms(4,5).
  • Wiklund, E., et al. (författare)
  • Ultimate pH values and bacteriological condition of meat and stress metabolites in blood of transported reindeer bulls
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Rangifer. - : Nordisk Organ for Reindriftsforskning. - 0333-256X .- 1890-6729. ; 21:1, s. 3-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twenty-three reindeer bulls, aged 2-3 years, fed during two winter months at the Vuolda reindeer research station in Arjeplog, Sweden, were used in the study. The first group of eight reindeer was moved from their feeding corral to a selection corral, captured by lasso and stunned with a captive bolt outside the selection corral. The second group of seven reindeer was moved to the selection corral, captured by lasso and restrained, after which they were loaded onto a lorry- and transported for 1 hour and then slaughtered. The third group of eight reindeer was moved to the selection corral and herded directly onto the lorry, without any manual handling. They were transported for 5 h and then slaughtered. In both transport groups, four reindeer were fitted with pre-programmed automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE). ABSE sampled blood at predetermined times via a jugular vein catheter. Ultimate pH-values in three muscles (Mm. longissimus, triceps brachii and biceps femoris) were significantly lower in the group carefully handled and transported for 5 h compared with the other two groups. The physiological mechanisms behind these results are discussed. Samples from M. semimembranosus were collected at slaughter and after 2, 6 and 10 days of refrigerated storage (+4 °C). The samples were analysed for total counts of aerobic bacteria (pour-plated in Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar, Difco, incubated at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively for 72 h), coliform bacteria 37 °C (pour-plated in Violet Red Bile Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h), Enterococci (surface-plated onto Slantez and Bartley Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 44 °C for 48 h) and Bacillus cereus (surface-plated onto Blood Agar Plates (Blood Agar Base, Difco, supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood) 30 °C for 24 h). All samples fell in the range 'fit for consumption'. At slaughter, there was no difference in ASAT activity, urea and Cortisol concentrations between the two transported groups. However, the plasma ASAT activity and urea concentrations at slaughter were significantly lower in the non-transported group. In both transport groups, the plasma Cortisol concentrations increased during loading onto and unloading from the lorry. Abomasal lesions were observed in all treatment groups. It was concluded that reindeer showed an acute stress response to manual handling and transport.
  • Xue, JY, et al. (författare)
  • SLC4A2 Deficiency Causes a New Type of Osteopetrosis
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - 1523-4681. ; 37:2, s. 226-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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  • Resultat 101-109 av 109
  • Föregående 1...5678910[11]

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