21. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results I. Overview and the cosmological legacy of Planck
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which was dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013, producing deep, highresolution, allsky maps in nine frequency bands from 30 to 857 GHz. This paper presents the cosmological legacy of Planck, which currently provides our strongest constraints on the parameters of the standard cosmological model and some of the tightest limits available on deviations from that model. The 6parameter Lambda CDM model continues to provide an excellent fit to the cosmic microwave background data at high and low redshift, describing the cosmological information in over a billion map pixels with just six parameters. With 18 peaks in the temperature and polarization angular power spectra constrained well, Planck measures five of the six parameters to better than 1% (simultaneously), with the bestdetermined parameter (theta (*)) now known to 0.03%. We describe the multicomponent sky as seen by Planck, the success of the Lambda CDM model, and the connection to lowerredshift probes of structure formation. We also give a comprehensive summary of the major changes introduced in this 2018 release. The Planck data, alone and in combination with other probes, provide stringent constraints on our models of the early Universe and the largescale structure within which all astrophysical objects form and evolve. We discuss some lessons learned from the Planck mission, and highlight areas ripe for further experimental advances.


22. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results VI. Cosmological parameters
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present cosmological parameter results from the final fullmission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of largescale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to significant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters. Improved modelling of the smallscale polarization leads to more robust constraints on many parameters, with residual modelling uncertainties estimated to affect them only at the 0.5 sigma level. We find good consistency with the standard spatiallyflat 6parameter Lambda CDM cosmology having a powerlaw spectrum of adiabatic scalar perturbations (denoted base Lambda CDM in this paper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density Omega (c)h(2)=0.120 +/ 0.001, baryon density Omega (b)h(2)=0.0224 +/ 0.0001, scalar spectral index n(s)=0.965 +/ 0.004, and optical depth tau =0.054 +/ 0.007 (in this abstract we quote 68% confidence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to 0.03% precision, with 100 theta (*)=1.0411 +/ 0.0003. These results are only weakly dependent on the cosmological model and remain stable, with somewhat increased errors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the baseLambda CDM cosmology, the inferred (modeldependent) lateUniverse parameters are: Hubble constant H0=(67.4 +/ 0.5) km s(1) Mpc(1); matter density parameter Omega (m)=0.315 +/ 0.007; and matter fluctuation amplitude sigma (8)=0.811 +/ 0.006. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the baseLambda CDM model. Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and considering singleparameter extensions) we constrain the effective extra relativistic degrees of freedom to be Neff=2.99 +/ 0.17, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction Neff=3.046, and find that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained to Sigma m(nu)< 0.12 eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudes than predicted in base CDM at over 2 sigma, which pulls some parameters that affect the lensing amplitude away from the Lambda CDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAO data. The joint constraint with BAO measurements on spatial curvature is consistent with a flat universe, Omega (K)=0.001 +/ 0.002. Also combining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the darkenergy equation of state parameter is measured to be w(0)=1.03 +/ 0.03, consistent with a cosmological constant. We find no evidence for deviations from a purely powerlaw primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensortoscalar ratio r(0.002)< 0.06. Standard bigbang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the baseCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. The Planck baseLambda CDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey's combinedprobe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower fluctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in significant, 3.6 sigma, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value). Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data.


23. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results L. Evidence of spatial variation of the polarized thermal dust spectral energy distribution and implications for CMB Bmode analysis
 2017

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 599

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 The characterization of the Galactic foregrounds has been shown to be the main obstacle in the challenging quest to detect primordial Bmodes in the polarized microwave sky. We make use of the PlanckHFI 2015 data release at high frequencies to place new constraints on the properties of the polarized thermal dust emission at high Galactic latitudes. Here, we specifically study the spatial variability of the dust polarized spectral energy distribution (SED), and its potential impact on the determination of the tensortoscalar ratio, r. We use the correlation ratio of the CBB `angular power spectra between the 217 and 353 GHz channels as a tracer of these potential variations, computed on different high Galactic latitude regions, ranging from 80% to 20% of the sky. The new insight from Planck data is a departure of the correlation ratio from unity that cannot be attributed to a spurious decorrelation due to the cosmic microwave background, instrumental noise, or instrumental systematics. The effect is marginally detected on each region, but the statistical combination of all the regions gives more than 99% confidence for this variation in polarized dust properties. In addition, we show that the decorrelation increases when there is a decrease in the mean column density of the region of the sky being considered, and we propose a simple powerlaw empirical model for this dependence, which matches what is seen in the Planck data. We explore the effect that this measured decorrelation has on simulations of the BICEP2Keck Array/Planck analysis and show that the 2015 constraints from these data still allow a decorrelation between the dust at 150 and 353 GHz that is compatible with our measured value. Finally, using simplified models, we show that either spatial variation of the dust SED or of the dust polarization angle are able to produce decorrelations between 217 and 353 GHz data similar to the values we observe in the data.


24. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature maps, we separate Galactic thermal dust emission from cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored componentseparation method, the socalled generalized needlet internal linear combination (GNILC) method, which uses spatial information (the angular power spectra) to disentangle the Galactic dust emission and CIB anisotropies. We produce significantly improved allsky maps of Planck thermal dust emission, with reduced CIB contamination, at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. By reducing the CIB contamination of the thermal dust maps, we provide more accurate estimates of the local dust temperature and dust spectral index over the sky with reduced dispersion, especially at high Galactic latitudes above b = +/ 20 degrees. We find that the dust temperature is T = (19.4 +/ 1.3) K and the dust spectral index is beta = 1.6 +/ 0.1 averaged over the whole sky, while T = (19.4 +/ 1.5) K and beta = 1.6 +/ 0.2 on 21% of the sky at high latitudes. Moreover, subtracting the new CIBremoved thermal dust maps from the CMBremoved Planck maps gives access to the CIB anisotropies over 60% of the sky at Galactic latitudes vertical bar b vertical bar > 20 degrees. Because they are a significant improvement over previous Planck products, the GNILC maps are recommended for thermal dust science. The new CIB maps can be regarded as indirect tracers of the dark matter and they are recommended for exploring crosscorrelations with lensing and largescale structure optical surveys. The reconstructed GNILC thermal dust and CIB maps are delivered as Planck products.


25. 
 Akrami, Y., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results II. Low Frequency Instrument data processing
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present a final description of the dataprocessing pipeline for the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI), implemented for the 2018 data release. Several improvements have been made with respect to the previous release, especially in the calibration process and in the correction of instrumental features such as the effects of nonlinearity in the response of the analoguetodigital converters. We provide a brief pedagogical introduction to the complete pipeline, as well as a detailed description of the important changes implemented. Selfconsistency of the pipeline is demonstrated using dedicated simulations and null tests. We present the final version of the LFI full sky maps at 30, 44, and 70 GHz, both in temperature and polarization, together with a refined estimate of the solar dipole and a final assessment of the main LFI instrumental parameters.


26. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results III. High Frequency Instrument data processing and frequency maps
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 This paper presents the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data processing procedures for the Planck 2018 release. Major improvements in mapmaking have been achieved since the previous Planck 2015 release, many of which were used and described already in an intermediate paper dedicated to the Planck polarized data at low multipoles. These improvements enabled the first significant measurement of the reionization optical depth parameter using PlanckHFI data. This paper presents an extensive analysis of systematic effects, including the use of endtoend simulations to facilitate their removal and characterize the residuals. The polarized data, which presented a number of known problems in the 2015 Planck release, are very significantly improved, especially the leakage from intensity to polarization. Calibration, based on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole, is now extremely accurate and in the frequency range 100353 GHz reduces intensitytopolarization leakage caused by calibration mismatch. The Solar dipole direction has been determined in the three lowest HFI frequency channels to within one arc minute, and its amplitude has an absolute uncertainty smaller than 0.35 mu K, an accuracy of order 10(4). This is a major legacy from the Planck HFI for future CMB experiments. The removal of bandpass leakage has been improved for the main highfrequency foregrounds by extracting the bandpassmismatch coefficients for each detector as part of the mapmaking process; these values in turn improve the intensity maps. This is a major change in the philosophy of frequency maps, which are now computed from single detector data, all adjusted to the same average bandpass response for the main foregrounds. Endtoend simulations have been shown to reproduce very well the relative gain calibration of detectors, as well as drifts within a frequency induced by the residuals of the main systematic effect (analoguetodigital convertor nonlinearity residuals). Using these simulations, we have been able to measure and correct the small frequency calibration bias induced by this systematic effect at the 10(4) level. There is no detectable sign of a residual calibration bias between the first and second acoustic peaks in the CMB channels, at the 10(3) level.


27. 
 Delabrouille, J., et al.
(författare)

Exploring cosmic origins with CORE : Survey requirements and mission design
 2018

Ingår i: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.  : IOP Publishing.  14757516. ; :4

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Future observations of cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarisation have the potential to answer some of the most fundamental questions of modern physics and cosmology, including: what physical process gave birth to the Universe we see today? What are the dark matter and dark energy that seem to constitute 95% of the energy density of the Universe? Do we need extensions to the standard model of particle physics and fundamental interactions? Is the ACDM cosmological scenario correct, or are we missing an essential piece of the puzzle? In this paper, we list the requirements for a future CMB polarisation survey addressing these scientific objectives, and discuss the design drivers of the CORE space mission proposed to ESA in answer to the M5 call for a mediumsized mission. The rationale and options, and the methodologies used to assess the mission's performance, are of interest to other future CMB mission design studies. CORE has 19 frequency channels, distributed over a broad frequency range, spanning the 60600 GHz interval, to control astrophysical foreground emission. The angular resolution ranges from 2' to 18', and the aggregate CMB sensitivity is about 2 mu K.arcmin. The observations are made with a single integrated focalplane instrument, consisting of an array of 2100 cryogenicallycooled, linearlypolarised detectors at the focus of a 1.2m aperture crossDragone telescope. The mission is designed to minimise all sources of systematic effects, which must be controlled so that no more than 10(4) of the intensity leaks into polarisation maps, and no more than about 1% of Etype polarisation leaks into Btype modes. CORE observes the sky from a large Lissajous orbit around the SunEarth L2 point on an orbit that offers stable observing conditions and avoids contamination from sidelobe pickup of stray radiation originating from the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The entire sky is observed repeatedly during four years of continuous scanning, with a combination of three rotations of the spacecraft over different timescales. With about 50% of the sky covered every few days, this scan strategy provides the mitigation of systematic effects and the internal redundancy that are needed to convincingly extract the primordial Bmode signal on large angular scales, and check with adequate sensitivity the consistency of the observations in several independent data subsets. CORE is designed as a nearultimate CMB polarisation mission which, for optimal complementarity with groundbased observations, will perform the observations that are known to be essential to CMB polarisation science and cannot be obtained by any other means than a dedicated space mission. It will provide wellcharacterised, highlyredundant multifrequency observations of polarisation at all the scales where foreground emission and cosmic variance dominate the final uncertainty for obtaining precision CMB science, as well as 2' angular resolution maps of highfrequency foreground emission in the 300600 GHz frequency range, essential for complementarity with future groundbased observations with large telescopes that can observe the CMB with the same beamsize.


28. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results VIII. Gravitational lensing
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We present measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential using the final Planck 2018 temperature and polarization data. Using polarization maps filtered to account for the noise anisotropy, we increase the significance of the detection of lensing in the polarization maps from 5 sigma to 9 sigma. Combined with temperature, lensing is detected at 40 sigma. We present an extensive set of tests of the robustness of the lensingpotential power spectrum, and construct a minimumvariance estimator likelihood over lensing multipoles 8 <= L <= 400 (extending the range to lower L compared to 2015), which we use to constrain cosmological parameters. We find good consistency between lensing constraints and the results from the Planck CMB power spectra within the Lambda CDM model. Combined with baryon density and other weak priors, the lensing analysis alone constrains (8)Omega (0.25)(m) = 0.589 +/ 0.020 sigma 8 Omega m 0.25 = 0.589 +/ 0.020 (1 sigma errors). Also combining with baryon acoustic oscillation data, we find tight individual parameter constraints, sigma (8)=0.811 +/ 0.019, H0 = 67.9(1.3)(+1.2) km s(1) Mpc(1) H 0 = 67 . 9  1.3 + 1.2 .> km s  1 . Mpc  1 , and Omega (m) = 0.303(0.018)(+0.016) Omega m = 0 . 303  0.018 + 0.016 . Combining with Planck CMB power spectrum data, we measure sigma (8) to better than 1% precision, finding sigma (8)=0.811 +/ 0.006. CMB lensing reconstruction data are complementary to galaxy lensing data at lower redshift, having a different degeneracy direction in sigma (8)Omega (m) space; we find consistency with the lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey, and give combined lensingonly parameter constraints that are tighter than joint results using galaxy clustering. Using the Planck cosmic infrared background (CIB) maps as an additional tracer of highredshift matter, we make a combined Planckonly estimate of the lensing potential over 60% of the sky with considerably more smallscale signal. We additionally demonstrate delensing of the Planck power spectra using the joint and individual lensing potential estimates, detecting a maximum removal of 40% of the lensinginduced power in all spectra. The improvement in the sharpening of the acoustic peaks by including both CIB and the quadratic lensing reconstruction is detected at high significance.


29. 
 Aghanim, N., et al.
(författare)

Planck intermediate results XLIX. Parityviolation constraints from polarization data
 2016

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 596

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 Parityviolating extensions of the standard electromagnetic theory cause in vacuo rotation of the plane of polarization of propagating photons. This effect, also known as cosmic birefringence, has an impact on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy angular power spectra, producing nonvanishing TB and EB correlations that are otherwise null when parity is a symmetry. Here we present new constraints on an isotropic rotation, parametrized by the angle alpha, derived from Planck 2015 CMB polarization data. To increase the robustness of our analyses, we employ two complementary approaches, in harmonic space and in map space, the latter based on a peak stacking technique. The two approaches provide estimates for alpha that are in agreement within statistical uncertainties and are very stable against several consistency tests. Considering the TB and EB information jointly, we find alpha = 0 degrees: 31 +/ 0 degrees.05 (stat:) +/ 0 degrees:28 (syst:) from the harmonic analysis and alpha = 0 degrees.35 +/ 0 degrees.05 (stat :) 0 degrees.28 (syst :) from the stacking approach. These constraints are compatible with no parity violation and are dominated by the systematic uncertainty in the orientation of Planck's polarizationsensitive bolometers.


30. 
 Akrami, Y., et al.
(författare)

Planck 2018 results IX. Constraints on primordial nonGaussianity
 2020

Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics.  : EDP Sciences.  00046361 . 14320746. ; 641

Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
 We analyse the Planck fullmission cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and Emode polarization maps to obtain constraints on primordial nonGaussianity (NG). We compare estimates obtained from separable templatefitting, binned, and optimal modal bispectrum estimators, finding consistent values for the local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum amplitudes. Our combined temperature and polarization analysis produces the following final results: (local)(NL) = 0.9 +/ 5.1 f NL local =  0.9 +/ 5.1 ; f(NL)(equil) = 26 +/ 47 f NL equil =  26 +/ 47 ; and f(NL)(ortho) = 38 +/ 24 f NL ortho =  38 +/ 24 (68% CL, statistical). These results include lowmultipole (4 <= l< 40) polarization data that are not included in our previous analysis. The results also pass an extensive battery of tests (with additional tests regarding foreground residuals compared to 2015), and they are stable with respect to our 2015 measurements (with small fluctuations, at the level of a fraction of a standard deviation, which is consistent with changes in data processing). Polarizationonly bispectra display a significant improvement in robustness; they can now be used independently to set primordial NG constraints with a sensitivity comparable to WMAP temperaturebased results and they give excellent agreement. In addition to the analysis of the standard local, equilateral, and orthogonal bispectrum shapes, we consider a large number of additional cases, such as scaledependent feature and resonance bispectra, isocurvature primordial NG, and paritybreaking models, where we also place tight constraints but do not detect any signal. The nonprimordial lensing bispectrum is, however, detected with an improved significance compared to 2015, excluding the null hypothesis at 3.5. Beyond estimates of individual shape amplitudes, we also present modelindependent reconstructions and analyses of the Planck CMB bispectrum. Our final constraint on the local primordial trispectrum shape is g(NL)(local) = (5.8 +/ 6.5) x 10(4) g NL local = (  5.8 +/ 6.5 ) x 10 4 (68% CL, statistical), while constraints for other trispectrum shapes are also determined. Exploiting the tight limits on various bispectrum and trispectrum shapes, we constrain the parameter space of different earlyUniverse scenarios that generate primordial NG, including general singlefield models of inflation, multifield models (e.g. curvaton models), models of inflation with axion fields producing parityviolation bispectra in the tensor sector, and inflationary models involving vectorlike fields with directionallydependent bispectra. Our results provide a highprecision test for structureformation scenarios, showing complete agreement with the basic picture of the Lambda CDM cosmology regarding the statistics of the initial conditions, with cosmic structures arising from adiabatic, passive, Gaussian, and primordial seed perturbations.

