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31.
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33.
  • van Doorn, Ljcv, et al. (författare)
  • Improved Cerebrospinal Fluid-Based Discrimination between Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Controls after Correction for Ventricular Volumes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimers Disease. - 1387-2877. ; 56:2, s. 543-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied if the diagnostic power of AD CSF biomarker concentrations, i.e., A beta(42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), is affected by differences in lateral ventricular volume (VV), using CSF biomarker data and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 730 subjects, from 13 European Memory Clinics. We developed a Matlab-algorithm for standardized automated segmentation analysis of T1 weighted MRI scans in SPM8 for determining VV, and computed its ratio with total intracranial volume (TIV) as proxy for total CSF volume. The diagnostic power of CSF biomarkers (and their combination), either corrected for VV/TIV ratio or not, was determined by ROC analysis. CSF A beta(42) levels inversely correlated to VV/TIV in the whole study population (A beta(42): r = -0.28; p < 0.0001). For CSF t-tau and p-tau, this association only reached statistical significance in the combined MCI and AD group (t-tau: r = -0.15; p-tau: r = -0.13; both p < 0.01). Correction for differences in VV/TIV improved the differentiation of AD versus controls based on CSF A beta(42) alone (AUC: 0.75 versus 0.81) or in combination with t-tau (AUC: 0.81 versus 0.91). In conclusion, differences in VV may be an important confounder in interpreting CSF A beta(42) levels.
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  • Lawlor, B., et al. (författare)
  • Nilvadipine in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: A randomised controlled trial
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Plos Medicine. - 1549-1676. ; 15:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background This study reports the findings of the first large-scale Phase III investigator-driven clinical trial to slow the rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease with a dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blocker, nilvadipine. Nilvadipine, licensed to treat hypertension, reduces amyloid production, increases regional cerebral blood flow, and has demonstrated antiinflammatory and anti-tau activity in preclinical studies, properties that could have diseasemodifying effects for Alzheimer disease. We aimed to determine if nilvadipine was effective in slowing cognitive decline in subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. NILVAD was an 18-month, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that randomised participants between 15 May 2013 and 13 April 2015. The study was conducted at 23 academic centres in nine European countries. Of 577 participants screened, 511 were eligible and were randomised (258 to placebo, 253 to nilvadipine). Participants took a trial treatment capsule once a day after breakfast for 78 weeks. Participants were aged > 50 years, meeting National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's disease Criteria (NINCDS-ADRDA) for diagnosis of probable Alzheimer disease, with a Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) score of >= 12 and < 27. Participants were randomly assigned to 8 mg sustained-release nilvadipine or matched placebo. The a priori defined primary outcome was progression on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cognitive Subscale-12 (ADAS-Cog 12) in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population (n = 498), with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale sum of boxes (CDR-sb) as a gated co-primary outcome, eligible to be promoted to primary end point conditional on a significant effect on the ADAS-Cog 12. The analysis set had a mean age of 73 years and was 62% female. Baseline demographic and Alzheimer disease +/- specific characteristics were similar between treatment groups, with reported mean of 1.7 years since diagnosis and mean SMMSE of 20.4. The prespecified primary analyses failed to show any treatment benefit for nilvadipine on the co-primary outcome (p = 0.465). Decline from baseline in ADASCog 12 on placebo was 0.79 (95% CI, -0.07 +/- 1.64) at 13 weeks, 6.41 (5.33 +/- 7.49) at 52 weeks, and 9.63 (8.33 +/- 10.93) at 78 weeks and on nilvadipine was 0.88 (0.02 +/- 1.74) at 13 weeks, 5.75 (4.66 +/- 6.85) at 52 weeks, and 9.41 (8.09 +/- 10.73) at 78 weeks. Exploratory analyses of the planned secondary outcomes showed no substantial effects, including on the CDR-sb or the Disability Assessment for Dementia. Nilvadipine appeared to be safe and well tolerated. Mortality was similar between groups (3 on nilvadipine, 4 on placebo); higher counts of adverse events (AEs) on nilvadipine (1,129 versus 1,030), and serious adverse events (SAEs; 146 versus 101), were observed. There were 14 withdrawals because of AEs. Major limitations of this study were that subjects had established dementia and the likelihood that non-Alzheimer subjects were included because of the lack of biomarker confirmation of the presence of brain amyloid. The results do not suggest benefit of nilvadipine as a treatment in a population spanning mild to moderate Alzheimer disease.
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  • Meulenbroek, O., et al. (författare)
  • European multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled trial of Nilvadipine in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease - The substudy protocols: NILVAD frailty; NILVAD blood and genetic biomarkers; NILVAD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; NILVAD cerebral blood flow
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - 2044-6055. ; 6:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: In conjunction with the NILVAD trial, a European Multicentre Double-Blind Placebo Controlled trial of Nilvadipine in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are four NILVAD substudies in which eligible NILVAD patients are also invited to participate. The main NILVAD protocol was previously published in BMJ Open (2014). The objectives of the NILVAD substudies are to determine whether frailty, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), blood biomarker profile and Apolipoprotein E (APOE) status predict response to Nilvadipine, and to investigate the effect of Nilvadipine on cerebral blood flow and blood biomarkers. Methods and analysis: All participants who fulfil criteria for the main NILVAD study are eligible for participation in the NILVAD substudies. Participation is subject to informed consent and whether the substudy is available at a particular NILVAD study site. Each substudy entails extra measurements during the course of the main NILVAD study. For example, in the blood and genetic biomarkers substudy, extra blood (30 mL) will be collected at week 0, week 13, week 52 and week 78, while in the cerebral blood flow substudy, participants will receive an MRI and transcranial Doppler measurements at week 0, week 26 and week 78. In the CSF substudy, 10 mL CSF is collected at week 0 and week 78. Ethics and dissemination: All NILVAD substudies and all subsequent amendments have received ethical approval within each participating country, according to national regulations. Each participant provides written consent to participate. All participants remain anonymised throughout and the results of each substudy will be published in an international peer reviewed journal. © 2016 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.
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  • Wesenhagen, K. E. J., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of age, amyloid, sex, and APOE epsilon 4 on the CSF proteome in normal cognition
  • 2022
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 14:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction It is important to understand which biological processes change with aging, and how such changes are associated with increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We studied how cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomics changed with age and tested if associations depended on amyloid status, sex, and apolipoprotein E sigma 4 genotype. Methods We included 277 cognitively intact individuals aged 46 to 89 years from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, European Medical Information Framework for Alzheimer's Disease Multimodal Biomarker Discovery, and Metabolic Syndrome in Men. In total, 1149 proteins were measured with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring/Rules-Based Medicine, tandem mass tag mass spectrometry, and SOMAscan. We tested associations between age and protein levels in linear models and tested enrichment for Reactome pathways. Results Levels of 252 proteins increased with age independently of amyloid status. These proteins were associated with immune and signaling processes. Levels of 21 proteins decreased with older age exclusively in amyloid abnormal participants and these were enriched for extracellular matrix organization. Discussion We found amyloid-independent and -dependent CSF proteome changes with older age, perhaps representing physiological aging and early AD pathology.
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