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  • Turner, Martin R, et al. (författare)
  • Volumetric cortical loss in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : official publication of the World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases. - 1471-180X. ; 8:6, s. 343-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Patients homozygous for the D90A mutation of the SOD1 gene (homD90A) demonstrate markedly slower progression of disease than those patients with sporadic ALS (SALS). PET studies have demonstrated a different cortical vulnerability in the two groups, reflected also in neurophysiological studies showing reduced cortical excitability in homD90A. Voxel-based morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRIs) enables the detection of regional differences in grey matter volume, and can be used to localize cortical atrophy in vivo. In this study, segmented, spatially normalized, modulated and smoothed grey matter portions of the MRIs from 23 SALS and seven homD90A patients with similar disability, were compared with those from 28 healthy control subjects. The SALS group showed bilateral areas of atrophy mainly confined to motor and pre-motor cortices. Cortical changes in the homD90A group were more pronounced within the frontal lobes when both were compared with healthy controls. This study provides further evidence for a different pattern of cortical neuronal vulnerability in homD90A versus SALS patients that may provide insight as to their slower rate of disease progression.
  • van den Berg, Leonard H., et al. (författare)
  • Revised Airlie House consensus guidelines for design and implementation of ALS clinical trials
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Wolters Kluwer. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 92:14, s. E1610-E1623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To revise the 1999 Airlie House consensus guidelines for the design and implementation of preclinical therapeutic studies and clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).Methods: A consensus committee comprising 140 key members of the international ALS community (ALS researchers, clinicians, patient representatives, research funding representatives, industry, and regulatory agencies) addressed 9 areas of need within ALS research: (1) preclinical studies; (2) biological and phenotypic heterogeneity; (3) outcome measures; (4) disease-modifying and symptomatic interventions; (5) recruitment and retention; (6) biomarkers; (7) clinical trial phases; (8) beyond traditional trial designs; and (9) statistical considerations. Assigned to 1 of 8 sections, committee members generated a draft set of guidelines based on a “background” of developing a (pre)clinical question and a “rationale” outlining the evidence and expert opinion. Following a 2-day, face-to-face workshop at the Airlie House Conference Center, a modified Delphi process was used to develop draft consensus research guidelines, which were subsequently reviewed and modified based on comments from the public. Statistical experts drafted a separate document of statistical considerations (section 9).Results: In this report, we summarize 112 guidelines and their associated backgrounds and rationales. The full list of guidelines, the statistical considerations, and a glossary of terms can be found in data available from Dryad (appendices e-3–e-5, doi.org/10.5061/dryad.32q9q5d). The authors prioritized 15 guidelines with the greatest potential to improve ALS clinical research.Conclusion: The revised Airlie House ALS Clinical Trials Consensus Guidelines should serve to improve clinical trial design and accelerate the development of effective treatments for patients with ALS.
  • Wernet, Philippe, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping chemical bonding of reaction intermediates with femtosecond X-ray laser spectroscopy
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: XVIIIth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena. - : EDP Sciences. - 9782759809561 ; , s. 05025-
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We determine the pathways in the photo-dissociation reactions of Fe(CO)5 both in the gas phase and in solution by mapping the valence electronic structure of the reaction intermediates with femtosecond X-ray laser spectroscopy.
  • Yang, Yi, et al. (författare)
  • High-contrast Polarimetry Observation of the T Tau Circumstellar Environment
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 861:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted high-contrast polarimetry observations of T Tau in the H-band, using the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics instrument mounted on the Subaru Telescope, revealing structures as near as 0 1 from the stars T Tau N and T Tau S. The whole T Tau system is found to be surrounded by nebulalike envelopes, and several outflow-related structures are detected in these envelopes. We analyzed the detailed polarization patterns of the circumstellar structures near each component of this triple young star system and determined constraints on the circumstellar disks and outflow structures. We suggest that the nearly face-on circumstellar disk of T Tau N is no larger than 0.''8, or 117 au, in the northwest, based on the existence of a hole in this direction, and no larger than 0.''27, or 40 au, in the south. A new structure, N5, extends to about 0.''42, or 59 au, southwest of the star, and is believed to be part of the disk. We suggest that T Tau S is surrounded by a highly inclined circumbinary disk with a radius of about 0.''3, or 44 au, with a position angle of about 30 degrees, that is misaligned with the orbit of the T Tau S binary. After analyzing the positions and polarization vector patterns of the outflow-related structures, we suggest that T Tau S should trigger the well-known E-W outflow, and is also likely to be responsible for a southwest precessing outflow coil and a possible south outflow.
  • Yang, Yi, et al. (författare)
  • High-resolution Near-infrared Polarimetry and Submillimeter Imaging of FS Tau A : Possible Streamers in Misaligned Circumbinary Disk System
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 889:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed the young (2.8 Myr-old) binary system FS Tau A using near-infrared (H-band) high -contrast polarimetry data from Subaru/HiCIAO and submillimeter CO (J = 2-1) line emission data from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Both the near-infrared and submillimeter observations reveal several clear structures extending to similar to 240 au from the stars. Based on these observations at different wavelengths, we report the following discoveries. One arm-like structure detected in the near-infrared band initially extends from the south of the binary with a subsequent turn to the northeast, corresponding to two bar-like structures detected in ALMA observations with an local standard of rest kinematic (LSRK) velocity of 1.19-5.64 km s(-1). Another feature detected in the near-infrared band extends initially from the north of the binary, relating to an arm-like structure detected in ALMA observations with an LSRK velocity of 8.17-16.43 km s(-1). From their shapes and velocities, we suggest that these structures can mostly be explained by two streamers that connect the outer circumbinary disk and the central binary components. These discoveries will be helpful for understanding the evolution of streamers and circumstellar disks in young binary systems.
  • Yang, Yi, et al. (författare)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astronomical Journal. - 0004-6256 .- 1538-3881. ; 153:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By performing non-masked polarization imaging with Subaru/HiCIAO, polarized scattered light from the inner region of the disk around the GG Tau A system was successfully detected in the H band, with a spatial resolution of approximately 0 07, revealing the complicated inner disk structures around this young binary. This paper reports the observation of an arc-like structure to the north of GG Tau Ab, and part of a circumstellar structure that is noticeable around GG Tau Aa, extending to a distance of approximately 28 au from the primary star. The speckle noise around GG Tau Ab constrains its disk radius to < 13 au. Based on the size of the circumbinary ring and the circumstellar disk around GG Tau Aa, the semimajor axis of the binary's orbit is likely to be 62 au. A comparison of the present observations with previous Atacama Large Millimeter Array and near-infrared H-2 emission observations suggests that the north arc could be part of a large streamer flowing from the circumbinary ring to sustain the circumstellar disks. According to the previous studies, the circumstellar disk around GG Tau Aa has enough mass and can sustain itself for a duration sufficient for planet formation; thus, our study indicates that planets can form within close (separation. 100 au) young binary systems.
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