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Sökning: WFRF:(Urrutia Cordero Pablo)

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  • Föregående 12[3]
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21.
  • Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Local food web management increases resilience and buffers against global change effects on freshwaters
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A major challenge for ecological research is to identify ways to improve resilience to climate-induced changes in order to secure the ecosystem functions of natural systems, as well as ecosystem services for human welfare. With respect to aquatic ecosystems, interactions between climate warming and the elevated runoff of humic substances (brownification) may strongly affect ecosystem functions and services. However, we hitherto lack the adaptive management tools needed to counteract such global-scale effects on freshwater ecosystems. Here we show, both experimentally and using monitoring data, that predicted climatic warming and brownification will reduce freshwater quality by exacerbating cyanobacterial growth and toxin levels. Furthermore, in a model based on long-term data from a natural system, we demonstrate that food web management has the potential to increase the resilience of freshwater systems against the growth of harmful cyanobacteria, and thereby that local efforts offer an opportunity to secure our water resources against some of the negative impacts of climate warming and brownification. This allows for novel policy action at a local scale to counteract effects of global-scale environmental change, thereby providing a buffer period and a safer operating space until climate mitigation strategies are effectively established.
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22.
  • Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Phytoplankton diversity loss along a gradient of future warming and brownification in freshwater mesocosms
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0046-5070 .- 1365-2427. ; 62:11, s. 1869-1878
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globally, freshwater ecosystems are warming at unprecedented rates and northern temperate lakes are simultaneously experiencing increased runoff of humic substances (brownification), with little known consequences for future conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We employed an outdoor mesocosm experiment during spring and summer to investigate the combined effects of gradually increasing warming and brownification perturbations on the phytoplankton community structure (biodiversity and composition) and functioning (biomass). While we did not observe overall significant treatment effects on total phytoplankton biomasses, we show that predicted increases in warming and brownification can reduce biodiversity considerably, occasionally up to 90% of Shannon diversity estimates. Our results demonstrate that the loss of biodiversity is driven by the dominance of mixotrophic algae (Dinobryon and Cryptomonas), whereas several other phytoplankton taxa may be temporarily displaced from the community, including Cyclotella, Desmodesmus, Monoraphidium, Tetraedron, Nitzschia and Golenkinia. The observed loss of biodiversity coincided with an increase in bacterial production providing resources for potential mixotrophs along the gradient of warming and brownification. This coupling between bacterial production and mixotrophs was likely a major cause behind the competitive displacement of obligate phototrophs and supports evidence for the importance of consumer–prey dynamics in shaping environmental impacts on phytoplankton communities. We conclude that warming and brownification are likely to cause a profound loss of biodiversity by indirectly affecting competitive interactions among phytoplankton taxa. Importantly, our results did not show an abrupt loss of biodiversity; instead the reduction in taxa richness levelled off after exceeding a threshold of warming and brownification. These results exemplify the complex nonlinear responses of biodiversity to environmental perturbations and provide further insights for predicting biodiversity patterns to the future warming and brownification of freshwaters.
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23.
  • Urrutia Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Responses of cyanobacteria to herbivorous zooplankton across predator regimes: who mows the bloom?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0046-5070. ; 60:5, s. 960-972
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. The massive growth of large, toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic waters has traditionally been explained by their evolution of defences to herbivorous zooplankton. These conclusions come mostly from studies using the large-bodied cladoceran Daphnia as a grazer model. In contrast, very little is known about the effects of other zooplankters such as copepods and small cladocerans that, unlike Daphnia, often coexist with cyanobacterial blooms and under high levels of fish predation. We performed a series of grazing experiments during a cyanobacterial bloom in a eutrophic lake, subject to decreasing predation on zooplankton (removal of cyprinid fish). We also used long-term observational data to analyse the response of cyanobacteria to changes in abundance, body size and biomass of the naturally, coexisting zooplankton community across different predator regimes. A natural grazer community, dominated by selective herbivores like calanoid and cyclopoid copepods, positively affected cyanobacterial growth in early summer at low cyanobacterial densities. However, cyclopoid copepods and small cladocerans suppressed the growth of Anabaena, Microcystis and Planktothrix species under bloom conditions in late summer, with the exception of the highly toxic Microcystis botrys. Long-term observational data support the results from the grazing experiments regarding the potential capacity of the natural zooplankton community to suppress cyanobacterial growth, especially of the dominant taxon Microcystis (including the most toxic species, M.botrys). In particular, these results suggest that direct grazing may contribute significantly to the observed 72% decrease in Microcystis biomass through a 111% increase in abundance of cyclopoid copepods, and an 18% increase in body size of cyclopoid copepods and a 31% increase in body size of the generalist feeder Daphnia, during the biomanipulation. Together, these results suggest that, within the complex interactions brought about by trophic cascades, direct grazing by the coexisting zooplankton community is a strong driver regulating cyanobacterial growth in eutrophic lakes and that this can display contrasting effects, both seasonally and under different levels of fish predation. Importantly, we show that herbivory may be enhanced along a gradient of decreasing fish predation by the combined action of copepods (selective herbivores) and Daphnia (generalist herbivores).
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24.
  • Wilken, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Primary producers or consumers? : Increasing phytoplankton bacterivory along a gradient of lake warming and browning
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - : WILEY. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. ; 63:Suppl. 1, s. S142-S155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eukaryotic phytoplankton form the basis of aquatic food webs and play a key role in the global carbon cycle. Many of these evolutionarily diverse microalgae are also capable of feeding on other microbes, and hence simultaneously act both as primary producers and consumers. The net ecosystem impact of such mixotrophs depends on their nutritional strategy which is likely to alter with environmental change. Many temperate lakes are currently warming at unprecedented rates and are simultaneously increasing in water color (browning) due to increased run-off of humic substances. We hypothesized that the resulting reduction in light intensity and increased bacterial abundances would favor mixotrophic phytoplankton over obligate autotrophs, while higher temperatures might boost their rates of bacterivory. We tested these hypotheses in a mesocosm experiment simulating a gradient of increasing temperature and water color in temperate shallow lakes as expected to occur over the coming century. Mixotrophs showed a faster increase in abundance under the climate change scenario during spring, when they dominated the phytoplankton community. Furthermore, both bacterial abundances and rates of phytoplankton bacterivory increased under future climate conditions. Bacterivory contributed significantly to phytoplankton resource acquisition under future climate conditions, while remaining negligible throughout most of the season in treatments resembling today's conditions. Hence, to our knowledge, we here provide the first evidence for an increasing importance of bacterivory by phytoplankton in future temperate shallow lakes. Such a change in phytoplankton nutritional strategies will likely impact biogeochemical cycles and highlights the need to conceptually integrate mixotrophy into current ecosystem models.
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25.
  • Zhang, Huan, et al. (författare)
  • Life-history traits buffer against heat wave effects on predator-prey dynamics in zooplankton
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 24:10, s. 4747-4757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to an increase in mean temperature, extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which are likely to affect organism interactions, seasonal succession, and resting stage recruitment patterns in terrestrial as well as in aquatic ecosystems. For example, freshwater zooplankton with different life-history strategies, such as sexual or parthenogenetic reproduction, may respond differently to increased mean temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations. Therefore, we conducted a long-term (18 months) mesocosm experiment where we evaluated the effects of increased mean temperature (4°C) and an identical energy input but delivered through temperature fluctuations, i.e., as heat waves. We show that different rotifer prey species have specific temperature requirements and use limited and species-specific temperature windows for recruiting from the sediment. On the contrary, co-occurring predatory cyclopoid copepods recruit from adult or subadult resting stages and are therefore able to respond to short-term temperature fluctuations. Hence, these different life-history strategies affect the interactions between cyclopoid copepods and rotifers by reducing the risk of a temporal mismatch in predator-prey dynamics in a climate change scenario. Thus, we conclude that predatory cyclopoid copepods with long generation time are likely to benefit from heat waves since they rapidly "wake up" even at short temperature elevations and thereby suppress fast reproducing prey populations, such as rotifers. In a broader perspective, our findings suggest that differences in life-history traits will affect predator-prey interactions, and thereby alter community dynamics, in a future climate change scenario.
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