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  • Davegårdh, Cajsa, et al. (författare)
  • Abnormal epigenetic changes during differentiation of human skeletal muscle stem cells from obese subjects
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: BMC Medicine. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1741-7015. ; 15:1, s. 1-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. Methods: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals. Functional follow-up experiments were performed using siRNA mediated gene silencing in primary human myoblasts and a transgenic mouse model. Results: We observed genome-wide changes in DNA methylation and expression patterns during differentiation of primary human muscle stem cells (myoblasts). We identified epigenetic and transcriptional changes of myogenic transcription factors (MYOD1, MYOG, MYF5, MYF6, PAX7, MEF2A, MEF2C, and MEF2D), cell cycle regulators, metabolic enzymes and genes previously not linked to myogenesis, including IL32, metallothioneins, and pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoproteins. Functional studies demonstrated IL-32 as a novel target that regulates human myogenesis, insulin sensitivity and ATP levels in muscle cells. Furthermore, IL32 transgenic mice had reduced insulin response and muscle weight. Remarkably, approximately 3.7 times more methylation changes (147,161 versus 39,572) were observed during differentiation of myoblasts from obese versus non-obese subjects. In accordance, DNMT1 expression increased during myogenesis only in obese subjects. Interestingly, numerous genes implicated in metabolic diseases and epigenetic regulation showed differential methylation and expression during differentiation only in obese subjects. Conclusions: Our study identifies IL-32 as a novel myogenic regulator, provides a comprehensive map of the dynamic epigenome during differentiation of human muscle stem cells and reveals abnormal epigenetic changes in obesity.
  • Ermolaev, G. A., et al. (författare)
  • Giant optical anisotropy in transition metal dichalcogenides for next-generation photonics
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 12:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large optical anisotropy observed in a broad spectral range is of paramount importance for efficient light manipulation in countless devices. Although a giant anisotropy has been recently observed in the mid-infrared wavelength range, for visible and near-infrared spectral intervals, the problem remains acute with the highest reported birefringence values of 0.8 in BaTiS3 and h-BN crystals. This issue inspired an intensive search for giant optical anisotropy among natural and artificial materials. Here, we demonstrate that layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provide an answer to this quest owing to their fundamental differences between intralayer strong covalent bonding and weak interlayer van der Waals interaction. To do this, we made correlative far- and near-field characterizations validated by first-principle calculations that reveal a huge birefringence of 1.5 in the infrared and 3 in the visible light for MoS2. Our findings demonstrate that this remarkable anisotropy allows for tackling the diffraction limit enabling an avenue for on-chip next-generation photonics. Optical anisotropy in a broad spectral range is pivotal to efficient light manipulation. Here, the authors measure a birefringence of 1.5 in the infrared range and 3 in the visible light for MoS2.
  • Koester, U., et al. (författare)
  • In-source laser spectroscopy of (75,77,78)Cu : Direct evidence for a change in the quasiparticle energy sequence in (75,77)Cu and an absence of longer-lived isomers in (78)Cu
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Physical Review C. Nuclear Physics. - 0556-2813 .- 1089-490X. ; 84:3, s. 034320-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes measurements on the isotopes (75,77,78)Cu by the technique of in-source laser spectroscopy, at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The role of this technique is briefly discussed in the context of this and other, higher resolution, methods applied to copper isotopes in the range (57-78)Cu. The data, analyzed in comparison with previous results on the lighter isotopes (59,63)Cu, establish the ground-state nuclear spin of (75,77)Cu as 5/2 and yield their magnetic dipole moments as +1.01(5)mu(N) and +1.61(5)mu(N), respectively. The results on (78)Cu show no evidence for long-lived isomerism at this mass number and are consistent with a spin in the range 3-6 and moment of 0.0(4) mu(N).
  • Krasznahorkay, A., et al. (författare)
  • Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: AIP Conference Proceedings. - 1551-7616 .- 0094-243X. ; 1491, s. 190-197
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The γ-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) to the isobaric analog state has been measured following the p( 124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutronskin thickness (ΔRpn). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the ΔRpn value for 124Sn was deduced to be 0.21 ± 0.07 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.
  • Lee, Craig M., et al. (författare)
  • A Framework for the Development, Design and Implementation of a Sustained Arctic Ocean Observing System
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science. - 2296-7745. ; 6
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rapid Arctic warming drives profound change in the marine environment that have significant socio-economic impacts within the Arctic and beyond, including climate and weather hazards, food security, transportation, infrastructure planning and resource extraction. These concerns drive efforts to understand and predict Arctic environmental change and motivate development of an Arctic Region Component of the Global Ocean Observing System (ARCGOOS) capable of collecting the broad, sustained observations needed to support these endeavors. This paper provides a roadmap for establishing the ARCGOOS. ARCGOOS development must be underpinned by a broadly endorsed framework grounded in high-level policy drivers and the scientific and operational objectives that stem from them. This should be guided by a transparent, internationally accepted governance structure with recognized authority and organizational relationships with the national agencies that ultimately execute network plans. A governance model for ARCGOOS must guide selection of objectives, assess performance and fitness-to-purpose, and advocate for resources. A requirements-based framework for an ARCGOOS begins with the Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) that underpin the system. SBAs motivate investments and define the system's science and operational objectives. Objectives can then be used to identify key observables and their scope. The domains of planning/policy, strategy, and tactics define scope ranging from decades and basins to focused observing with near real time data delivery. Patterns emerge when this analysis is integrated across an appropriate set of SBAs and science/operational objectives, identifying impactful variables and the scope of the measurements. When weighted for technological readiness and logistical feasibility, this can be used to select Essential ARCGOOS Variables, analogous to Essential Ocean Variables of the Global Ocean Observing System. The Arctic presents distinct needs and challenges, demanding novel observing strategies. Cost, traceability and ability to integrate region-specific knowledge have to be balanced, in an approach that builds on existing and new observing infrastructure. ARCGOOS should benefit from established data infrastructures following the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, Reuseable Principles to ensure preservation and sharing of data and derived products. Linking to the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) process and involving Arctic stakeholders, for example through liaison with the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), can help ensure success.
  • Lozovik, Yurii E, et al. (författare)
  • Study of localization of carriers in disordered semiconductors by femtosecond spectroscopy
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Laser physics. - : Springer Science Business Media. - 1054-660X .- 1555-6611. ; 12:4, s. 802-811
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new method for determination of the mobility edge in disordered semiconductors by femtosecond pump-supercontinuum probe spectroscopy is presented. The method is based on the determination of the spectral dependence of a stretched exponential relaxation in a wide spectral range of probing, homega(probe) = 1.6-3.2 eV. The method is demonstrated for porous silicon. It is shown that the relaxation parameters for porous silicon have essential spectral dependence. The spectral dependence of stretched exponential index beta(omega) give unique information about existence and position of the mobility edge in disordered materials, and thus may be used as effective tool in manifestation of the transition from localized to delocalized relaxation regime on the femtosecond time scale.
  • Makarova, Tatiana L., et al. (författare)
  • Experimental realization of high spin states in dilutely hydrogenated fullerenes
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0370-1972 .- 1521-3951. ; 246:11-12, s. 2778-2781
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A novel method for preparing dilutely hydrogenated fullerenes H:C60 is presented. DFT calculations of the Raman spectra at the B3LYP/3-21G level are compared with the experimental data. Under the laser treatment these phases form a rich variety of dimeric and polymeric structures, quite in contrast to pristine C60 which forms dimers and polymers bonded through the [2 + 2] addition, and in contrast to heavily hydrogenated fullerenes which do not polymerize at all. Dilutely hydrogenated fullerenes polymerize differently, forming both double bonded structures and single bonded dimers. We have shown that dilute hydrogenation of C60 creates large amount of unpaired spins which disappear due to the formation of diamagnetic single bonded dimers.
  • Martin, Carlos, et al. (författare)
  • Comparative study of the enzymatic convertibility of glycerol- and dilute acid-pretreated sugarcane bagasse using Penicillium- and Trichoderma-based cellulase preparations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Industrial crops and products (Print). - 0926-6690 .- 1872-633X. ; 77, s. 382-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Three enzyme preparations based on the cellulase complex of Penicillium verruculosum and three Trichoderma reesei-based enzyme cocktails were used for evaluating the enzymatic convertibility of cellulose contained in glycerol- and sulfuric acid-pretreated bagasse. The hydrolysis was initially monitored with a micro-scale method using 2 mL of reaction mixture containing 50 g/L of pretreated solids, and at an enzyme load of 10 mg proteinig cellulose. The results were further validated at a higher scale in a setup consisting of 20 mL of reaction mixture with a substrate concentration of 100 g/L. For all the cellulase preparations, and regardless of the experiment scale, glycerol-pretreated bagasse displayed better enzymatic convertibility than acid-pretreated bagasse. It was observed that when the enzyme load is increased from 2 to 10 mg/g, the cellulose conversion is improved but the specific hydrolysis rate is only marginally affected. Although the Trichoderma-based commercial cocktail CC-3 led to higher hydrolysis rates and conversions than all the other enzyme preparations, the Penicillium-based cellulases, especially PV-Xyl PCA and PV-Hist BGL, also showed good potential. PV-Xyl PCA was relatively effective for hydrolysing acid-pretreated bagasse, and PV-Hist BGL displayed reasonable performance in the hydrolysis in absence of exogenous beta-glucosidase. 
  • Mitchell, JT, et al. (författare)
  • Event reconstruction in the PHENIX central arm spectrometers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment. - : Elsevier. - 0167-5087. ; 482:1-2, s. 491-512
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The central arm spectrometers for the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have been designed for the optimization of particle identification in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The spectrometers present a challenging environment for event reconstruction due to a very high track multiplicity in a complicated, focusing, magnetic field. In order to meet this challenge, nine distinct detector types are integrated for charged particle tracking, momentum reconstruction. and particle identification. The techniques which have been developed for the task of event reconstruction are described.
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