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  • Wagner, Michael, 1957- (författare)
  • Clinical and Experimental Studies on Inflammatory Bowel Disease with special emphasis on Collagenous Colitis
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis describes studies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and collagenous colitis (CC). We investigated mucosal eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes and T-cells involved in the inflammatory processes and aimed at determining whether these processes are reflected in the faecal (F) contents of specific proteins secreted by cells in the intestinal mucosa. Thus, we measured eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) and the neutrophil derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) and calprotectin (C); and in addition, chromogranin A (CgA), Chromogranin B (CgB) and secretoneurin (SN), derived from EEC cells and cells in the enteric nervous system. We found that a normalised FC level can serve as a surrogate marker for successful treatment in patients with IBD, but persistently high FC levels need further evaluation (study I). Furthermore, FC and F-MPO appear to relate better than F-EPX to treatment outcome in IBD. We evaluated F-ECP, F-EPX, F-MPO and FC as markers of disease activity and treatment outcome in patients with CC (study III) and concluded that F-ECP was the best discriminator of detecting active CC. Normalised F-ECP and F-EPX could serve as markers of successful treatment. We showed that the inflammation in CC is characterised by activated eosinophils, but that there is no neutrophil activity (study II). T-cells have a lower grade of activity in active CC than in control subjects. During budesonide treatment the normal activation of eosinophils and T-cells is restored, with concomitant clinical remission. The findings in studies II and III indicate that the eosinophils have an essential role in the pathophysiology of CC. Markedly higher values of F-CgA, F-CgB and F-SN were found in patients with CC than in those with IBD and controls (study IV) indicating a crucial role for the intestinal neuro-endocrine system in the pathogenesis of collagenous colitis.
  • Wagner, M., et al. (författare)
  • Subgroup Analyses in Randomized Controlled Trials: The Need for Risk Stratification in Kidney Transplantation
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Transplantation. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1600-6135. ; 9:10, s. 2217-2222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Although randomized controlled trials (RCT) are the gold standard for establishing causation in clinical research, their aggregated results can be misleading when applied to individual patients. A treatment may be beneficial in some patients, but its harms may outweigh benefits in others. While conventional one-variable-at-a-time subgroup analyses have well-known limitations, multivariable risk-based analyses can help uncover clinically significant heterogeneity in treatment effects that may be otherwise obscured. Trials in kidney transplantation have yielded the finding that a reduction in acute rejection does not translate into a similar benefit in prolonging graft survival and improving graft function. This paradox might be explained by the variation in risk for acute rejection among included kidney transplant recipients varying the likelihood of benefit or harm from intense immunosuppressive regimens. Analyses that stratify patients by their immunological risk may resolve these otherwise puzzling results. Reliable risk models should be developed to investigate benefits and harms in rationally designed risk-based subgroups of patients in existing RCT data sets. These risk strata would need to be validated in future prospective clinical trials examining long-term effects on patient and graft survival. This approach may allow better individualized treatment choices for kidney transplant recipients.
  • Wagner, Ryan G., et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and risk factors for active convulsive epilepsy in rural northeast South Africa
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Epilepsy Research. - : Elsevier BV. - 0920-1211 .- 1872-6844. ; 108:4, s. 782-791
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Epilepsy is among the most common neurological disorders there are few large, population-based studies of the prevalence and risk southern Africa. Methods: From August 2008 to February 2009, as part of a multi-site study, we undertook a three-stage, population-based study, embedded within the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system, to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of active convulsive epilepsy (ACE) in a rural South African population. Results: The crude prevalence of ACE, after adjusting for non-response and the sensitivity of the screening method, was 7.0/1,000 individuals (95%CI 6.4-7.6) with significant geographic heterogeneity across the study area. Being male (OR= 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2), family history of seizures (OR =4.0; 95%CI 2.0-8.1), a sibling with seizures (OR = 7.0; 95%CI 1.6-31.7), problems after delivery (OR= 5.9; 95%CI 1.2-24.6), and history of snoring (OR =6.5; 95%CI 4.5-9.5) were significantly associated with ACE. For children, their mother's exposure to some formal schooling was protective (OR = 0.30; 95%CI 0.11-0.84) after controlling for age and sex. Human immunodeficiency virus was not found to be associated with ACE. Conclusions: ACE is less frequent in this part of rural South Africa than other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Improving obstetric services could prevent epilepsy. The relationship between snoring and ACE requires further investigation, as does the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to examine the increased risk in those with a family history of epilepsy. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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