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61.
  • Nolan, P. L., et al. (författare)
  • FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049 .- 1538-4365. ; 199:2, s. 31-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the second catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely gamma-ray-producing source classes.
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62.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Search for Astrophysical Sources of Neutrinos Using Cascade Events in IceCube
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 846:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The IceCube neutrino observatory has established the existence of a flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, which is inconsistent with the expectation from atmospheric backgrounds at a significance greater than 5 sigma. This flux has been observed in analyses of both track events from muon neutrino interactions and cascade events from interactions of all neutrino flavors. Searches for astrophysical neutrino sources have focused on track events due to the significantly better angular resolution of track reconstructions. To date, no such sources have been confirmed. Here we present the first search for astrophysical neutrino sources using cascades interacting in IceCube with deposited energies as small as 1 TeV. No significant clustering was observed in a selection of 263 cascades collected from 2010 May to 2012 May. We show that compared to the classic approach using tracks, this statistically independent search offers improved sensitivity to sources in the southern sky, especially if the emission is spatially extended or follows a soft energy spectrum. This enhancement is due to the low background from atmospheric neutrinos forming cascade events and the additional veto of atmospheric neutrinos at declinations less than or similar to-30 degrees.
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63.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi/LAT observations of LS 5039
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 0571-7248. ; 706:1, s. L56-L61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first results from observations of the high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope data between 2008 August and 2009 June are presented. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated with a period of 3.903 ± 0.005 days; the first detection of this modulation at GeV energies. The light curve is characterized by a broad peak around superior conjunction in agreement with inverse Compton scattering models. The spectrum is represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux (100 MeV-300 GeV) of 4.9 ± 0.5(stat) ± 1.8(syst) ×10–7 photon cm–2 s–1, with a cutoff at 2.1 ± 0.3(stat) ± 1.1(syst) GeV and photon index Γ = 1.9 ± 0.1(stat) ± 0.3(syst). The spectrum is observed to vary with orbital phase, specifically between inferior and superior conjunction. We suggest that the presence of a cutoff in the spectrum may be indicative of magnetospheric emission similar to the emission seen in many pulsars by Fermi.
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64.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of the Cosmic Ray e(+)+e(-) Spectrum from 20 GeV to 1 TeV with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 102:Article number: 181101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Designed as a high-sensitivity gamma-ray observatory, the Fermi Large Area Telescope is also an electron detector with a large acceptance exceeding 2 m(2) sr at 300 GeV. Building on the gamma-ray analysis, we have developed an efficient electron detection strategy which provides sufficient background rejection for measurement of the steeply falling electron spectrum up to 1 TeV. Our high precision data show that the electron spectrum falls with energy as E-3.0 and does not exhibit prominent spectral features. Interpretations in terms of a conventional diffusive model as well as a potential local extra component are briefly discussed.
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65.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • PULSED GAMMA-RAYS FROM PSR J2021+3651 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 700:2, s. 1059-1066
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 +/- 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 +/- 3 +/- 11) x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1). The photon spectrum is well described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE(-Gamma)e((-E/Ec)), where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Gamma = 1.5 +/- 0.1 +/- 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E-c = 2.4 +/- 0.3 +/- 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RM = 524 +/- 4 rad m(-2) but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra X-ray Observatory data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.
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66.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • THE FIRST FERMI MULTIFREQUENCY CAMPAIGN ON BL LACERTAE : CHARACTERIZING THE LOW-ACTIVITY STATE OF THE EPONYMOUS BLAZAR
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 730:2, s. 101-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on observations of BL Lacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BL Lac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsahovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BL Lac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition.
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67.
  • Ackermann, M., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi LAT observations of cosmic-ray electrons from 7 GeV to 1 TeV
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PHYSICAL REVIEW D. - 1550-7998. ; 82:9, s. 092004-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present the results of our analysis of cosmic-ray electrons using about 8 x 10(6) electron candidates detected in the first 12 months on-orbit by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This work extends our previously published cosmic-ray electron spectrum down to 7 GeV, giving a spectral range of approximately 2.5 decades up to 1 TeV. We describe in detail the analysis and its validation using beam-test and on-orbit data. In addition, we describe the spectrum measured via a subset of events selected for the best energy resolution as a cross-check on the measurement using the full event sample. Our electron spectrum can be described with a power law proportional to E-3.08+/-0.05 with no prominent spectral features within systematic uncertainties. Within the limits of our uncertainties, we can accommodate a slight spectral hardening at around 100 GeV and a slight softening above 500 GeV.
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68.
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69.
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70.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi Gamma-Ray Imaging of a Radio Galaxy
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 328:5979, s. 725-729
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected the gamma-ray glow emanating from the giant radio lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. The resolved gamma-ray image shows the lobes clearly separated from the central active source. In contrast to all other active galaxies detected so far in high-energy gamma-rays, the lobe flux constitutes a considerable portion (greater than one-half) of the total source emission. The gamma-ray emission from the lobes is interpreted as inverse Compton-scattered relic radiation from the cosmic microwave background, with additional contribution at higher energies from the infrared-to-optical extragalactic background light. These measurements provide gamma-ray constraints on the magnetic field and particle energy content in radio galaxy lobes, as well as a promising method to probe the cosmic relic photon fields.
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